Sales practices of patent medicine sellers in Nigeria.
A survey was carried out among patent medicine dealers to evaluate their practices that militate against laws governing prescriptions-only medicines in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 46 patent medicine dealers and later collected from them on appointment. Analysis of the results showed that all the patent medicine dealers were aware of the law governing the sale of prescription drugs in Nigeria. Seventy-five per cent of them stock such drugs. Patent medicine dealers obtain their drugs largely from sales representative of pharmaceutical companies as well as from industries. Inappropriate use of sales boys and girls in patent medicine stores and defective government policies were all investigated. (+info)
Detecting child abuse and neglect--are dentists doing enough?
Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of child abuse and neglect and outlines the indicators that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients. Documentation protocols are also provided to aid in reporting child abuse identified in the dental office. (+info)
Analysis of factors related to illegal tobacco sales to young people in Ontario.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and to discuss factors influencing illegal merchant sales of tobacco to underage people in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Results were obtained through random retail compliance checks of tobacco merchants. A multivariate analysis specified the relationship between selected independent variables and the willingness of tobacco merchants to sell to minors. The selected independent variables included retail operation type, community population size, the presence of tobacco production, signage, sex and age of volunteers, smoking prevalence rates, and enforcement rates. PARTICIPANTS: A random, stratified sample of 438 tobacco retailers in 186 communities in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Willingness of merchants to sell tobacco to minors. RESULTS: Older youths and girls were more likely to be sold tobacco products. Purchase attempts carried out in tobacco-producing regions were also statistically related to illegal sales. CONCLUSIONS: Policy efforts to control youth access to tobacco in Canada may need to invoke legislation requiring merchants to request proper identification from customers who appear to be under the age of 25, and who seek to purchase tobacco products. Further attention could also be directed at tobacco control policies and enforcement strategies that need to consider the unique challenges faced by jurisdictions where the tobacco industry is a powerful presence. (+info)
Withholding/withdrawing treatment from neonates: legislation and official guidelines across Europe.
Representatives from eight European countries compared the legal, ethical and professional settings within which decision making for neonates takes place. When it comes to limiting treatment there is general agreement across all countries that overly aggressive treatment is to be discouraged. Nevertheless, strong emphasis has been placed on the need for compassionate care even where cure is not possible. Where a child will die irrespective of medical intervention, there is widespread acceptance of the practice of limiting aggressive treatment or alleviating suffering even if death may be hastened as a result. Where the infant could be saved but the future outlook is bleak there is more debate, but only two countries have tested the courts with such cases. When it comes to the active intentional ending of life, the legal position is standard across Europe; it is prohibited. However, recognising those intractable situations where death may be lingering and unpleasant, Dutch paediatricians have reported that they do sometimes assist babies to die with parental consent. Two cases have been tried through the courts and recent official recommendations have set out standards by which such actions may be assessed. (+info)
The family rule: a framework for obtaining ethical consent for medical interventions from children.
Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in obtaining consent from children, and could be used as a unifying framework in the development of new professional guidelines. A "guideline"-based approach to children's consent to treatment may offer greater individuality than a "rights"-based approach, though careful training and oversight will be needed for it to be effective. (+info)
Early entrance to the job market and its effect on adult health: evidence from Brazil.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of employment in childhood on self-reported health in adulthood. METHOD: A cross-sectional household survey, with households selected through two-stage sampling, in urban and rural areas in the northeast and southeast of Brazil. A total of 4940 individuals, aged between 18 and 65 years, were included. The main outcome measure was self-reported health. RESULTS: There has been a marked reduction in the proportion of people starting work during childhood although, even in the youngest age group, nearly 20% of males began work when under 10. Early entrance into the labour market is strongly associated with low levels of both education and income, with income differentials remaining at later ages. Age starting work is also linked to current household income, with approximately 35% of those starting work when 15 or over currently in the top quartile of household income, compared with 12% of those starting work when under 10. Males, those living in rural areas, and non-whites are most likely to start work early. In univariate analyses, the younger a person started working, the greater the probability of reporting less than good health status as an adult. This persists through all ages, although the difference attenuates with increasing age. In multivariate analyses, adjustment for education or household income substantially reduces the effect but fails to eliminate it in several age bands up to the age of 48, indicating that age starting work has an independent effect on self-reported health in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: The debate about the appropriate policy response to child labour is complex, requiring a balance between protecting the health of the child and safeguarding the income of the family. These findings indicate the need for more research on the long-term sequelae of beginning work at an early age. (+info)
Is it in a neonate's best interest to enter a randomised controlled trial?
Clinicians are required to act in the best interest of neonates. However, it is not obvious that entry into a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is in a neonate's best interest because such trials often involve additional onerous procedures (such as intramuscular injections) in return for which the neonate receives unproven treatment or a placebo. On the other hand, neonatology needs to develop its evidence base, and RCTs are central to this task. The solution posited here is based on two points. First, "best interest" is not equivalent to "the best possible interest" only to "best interest within a certain realm". The realm of deliberation when asking the title question is the neonate's health. Deliberating in this realm may involve the exclusion from consideration of some factors that might be thought relevant (such as parental wealth). Furthermore, circumstances may dictate the need to deliberate on other factors that might be thought irrelevant (such as health care resources). Second, deciding on a neonate's best interest does not involve "putting oneself in its shoes". Rather, it involves asking in what it has an interest, or stake. These will include some things in which we all, as human beings, have a stake, such as medical progress. Putting these two points together, in the realm of health the answer to whether RCT entry is in a neonate's best interest is usually very finely balanced. Where this is the case, it is reasonable to invoke a broader notion of best interest and include a broader range of elements in which the neonate has a stake, including medical progress. In this way RCT entry can, usually, be said to be in a neonate's best interest. (+info)
Prophylactic interventions on children: balancing human rights with public health.
Bioethics committees have issued guidelines that medical interventions should be permissible only in cases of clinically verifiable disease, deformity, or injury. Furthermore, once the existence of one or more of these requirements has been proven, the proposed therapeutic procedure must reasonably be expected to result in a net benefit to the patient. As an exception to this rule, some prophylactic interventions might be performed on individuals "in their best interests" or with the aim of averting an urgent and potentially calamitous public health danger. In order to invoke these exceptions, a stringent set of criteria must first be satisfied. Additionally, where the proposed prophylactic intervention is intended for children, who are unlikely to be able to provide a meaningfully informed consent, a heightened scrutiny of any such measures is required. We argue that children should not be subjected to prophylactic interventions "in their best interests" or for public health reasons when there exist effective and conservative alternative interventions, such as behavioural modification, that individuals could employ as competent adolescents or adults to avoid adverse health outcomes. Applying these criteria, we consider the specific examples of prophylactic mastectomy, immunisations, cosmetic ear surgery, and circumcision. (+info)