Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996.
This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied. (+info)
Psychosocial factors and smoking cessation behaviors among smokers who have and have not ever tried to quit.
Relationships between smoking cessation behaviors and demographic characteristics and attitudes were analyzed among two groups of smokers, those who had and had not ever tried to quit. Telephone interviews were completed with 1501 smokers at baseline and at a 3 month follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors that were associated with planning to quit, attempting to quit and quitting smoking within the two groups of smokers. Different patterns of correlates were found across groups and within the three outcome measures, indicating the potential importance of targeting interventions according to whether or not smokers have made a prior quit attempt. These findings also support the value of using multiple outcome measures in the smoking cessation process. (+info)
Child and adolescent injury and death from urban firearm assaults: association with age, race, and poverty.
OBJECTIVE: To describe rates and trends in the incidence of non-fatal and fatal firearm assault among children (16 years old or younger) over an 11 year period in Chicago, Illinois and to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of community areas where assaults are common. METHODS: The Chicago Police Department (CPD) records from 1986 through 1996 were reviewed for children assaulted with a firearm. United States census data for 1990 for Chicago were used to calculate incidence rates; census data were also used for community area (defined by census tract) socioeconomic descriptions. RESULTS: The CPD recorded 11,163 pediatric firearm assaults during the study period: 10,571 non-fatal and 592 (5%) fatal. From 1986 through 1996 non-fatal assaults more than doubled, with the highest rates in 1994; fatal assaults tripled, with rates peaking in 1993-94. Significant increases in non-fatal firearm assaults occurred among black and Hispanic males and females. In 1994, compared with white males, the relative risk of non-fatal assault was 7.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3 to 9.1) for black males and 3.3 (95% CI 2.5 to 4.4) for Hispanic males; the relative risk was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) for black females. A handgun was the firearm used in most assaults (88% of non-fatal and 84% of fatal). Within community areas, the correlation between non-fatal and fatal assault incidence was strong (r=0.80, p<0.001). The proportion of families with income below the 1989 poverty level ($12,674) and the per cent black race in the community area together accounted for 70% of the variance in assault rates. CONCLUSIONS: From 1986 to 1994 there were significant increases in both non-fatal and fatal firearm assaults, usually by handguns; thereafter, rates declined. Urban children who were victims of non-fatal firearm assault appear to come from the same population as those who suffer fatal assaults. Black and Hispanic youth living in poverty were at particular risk. (+info)
Social environment and year of birth influence type 1 diabetes risk for African-American and Latino children.
OBJECTIVE: Credible epidemiological data, primarily from European-origin populations, indicate that environmental factors play an important role in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based registry of incident cases of type 1 diabetes among African-American and Latino children in Chicago was used to explore the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics on diabetes risk. New cases of insulin-treated diabetes in African-American and Latino Chicagoans aged 0-17 years for 1985-1990 (n = 400) were assigned to one of 77 community areas based on street address. Census tables provided denominators, median household income, percentage of adults > or = 25 years old who had completed high school and college, and a crowding variable for each community area individual-level data were birth cohort, sex, and ethnicity. Outcomes in Poisson regression were sex-, ethnic-, and birth cohort-specific incidence rates. RESULTS: Significant univariate associations between diabetes risk and ethnicity, birth cohort, crowding, and the percentage of adults in each community area who had completed high school and college were observed. African-Americans had a relative risk (RR) of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.76) compared with Latinos. Risk varied significantly by birth cohort in both ethnic groups. For every 10% increase in the proportion of adults who completed college, the RR for diabetes increased by 25% (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.44]). Social class variables were significant determinants of risk for African Americans, but not for Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: The strong birth cohort and social class associations observed in this study implicate an infectious exposure linked with age. (+info)
Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: NIDDM occurs commonly among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The prevalence and natural history of its precursor, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), is less well known. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence and incidence of glucose intolerance in a large cohort of women with well-characterized PCOS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 122 women with clinical and hormonal evidence of PCOS were recruited from the Medicine, Endocrinology, Gynecology, and Pediatrics Clinics at the University of Chicago. All women had a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurement of glucose and insulin levels. A subset of 25 women were subsequently restudied with the aim of characterizing the natural history of glucose tolerance in PCOS. RESULTS: Glucose tolerance was abnormal in 55 (45%) of the 122 women: 43 (35%) had IGT and 12 (10%) had NIDDM at the time of initial study. The women with NIDDM differed from those with normal glucose tolerance in that they had a 2.6-fold higher prevalence of first-degree relatives with NIDDM (83 vs. 31%, P < 0.01 by chi 2) and were significantly more obese (BMI 41.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 33.4 +/- 1.1 kg/m2, P < 0.01). For the entire cohort of 122 women, there was a significant correlation between fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001); among the subset with IGT, the fasting glucose concentration was poorly predictive of the 2-h level (r = 0.25, NS). After a mean follow-up of 2.4 +/- 0.3 years (range 0.5-6.3), 25 women had a second OGTT. The glucose concentration at 2 h during the second glucose tolerance test was significantly higher than the 2-h concentration during the first study (161 +/- 9 vs. 139 +/- 6 mg/dl, P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IGT and NIDDM in women with PCOS is substantially higher than expected when compared with age- and weight-matched populations of women without PCOS. The conversion from IGT to NIDDM is accelerated in PCOS. The fasting glucose concentration does not reliably predict the glucose concentration at 2 h after an oral glucose challenge, particularly among those with IGT, the subgroup at highest risk for subsequent development of NIDDM. We conclude that women with PCOS should periodically have an OGTT and must be closely monitored for deterioration in glucose tolerance. (+info)
Validity of drug use reporting in a high-risk community sample: a comparison of cocaine and heroin survey reports with hair tests.
Hair specimens were collected from 322 subjects and analyzed as part of an experimental study administering household surveys during 1997 to a high-risk community sample of adults from Chicago, Illinois. Toxicologic results were compared with survey responses about recent and lifetime drug use. About 35% of the sample tested positive for cocaine, and 4% tested positive for heroin. Sample prevalence estimates of cocaine use based on toxicologic results were nearly five times the survey-based estimates of past month use and nearly four times the survey-based estimates of past year use. With the hair test results as the standard, cocaine and heroin use were considerably underreported in the survey. Underreporting was more of a problem for cocaine than for heroin. Among those who tested positive, survey disclosure of cocaine use was associated with higher levels of cocaine detected in hair. In general, when recent drug use was reported, it was usually detected in hair. When a drug was detected in hair, use was usually not reported in the survey. When heroin was detected in hair, cocaine was almost always detected as well. (+info)
The relation of gestation length to short-term heat stress.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between gestation length and heat exposure during the summer months of the Chicago heat wave of 1995. METHODS: Birth data from Illinois vital records containing 11,792 singleton vaginal births were analyzed to calculate mean gestational ages. RESULTS: No evidence was found to suggest an association between shortened gestation and increased maximum apparent temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The data propose no special precautions for pregnant women exposed to short-term heat stress of the intensity evaluated in this study. However, the possible effects of chronic heat exposure on gestation cannot be ruled out. (+info)
Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis increases the incidence of gram-negative neonatal sepsis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the increased use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the incidence of vertically transmitted neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Multiple institutional databases were queried for the number of cases in which intrapartum antibiotics were used, the obstetric risk factors that were present, and the number of resultant cases of neonatal sepsis that occurred for deliveries from 1992 through 1997. Intrapartum antibiotic use was compared between the first and fourth quarter of 1997. Comparisons were made between the years 1992-1996 and 1997 for the incidence of the various pathogens causing neonatal sepsis; group B streptococcus (GBS), gram-negative sepsis, and others. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in intrapartum chemoprophylaxis between the first and fourth quarters of 1997 corresponding to the increased physician awareness of published guidelines. As expected, the incidence of neonatal GBS sepsis was drastically reduced (from 1.7/1000 live births to 0 in 3730 births, P = 0.02). Unfortunately, there was a concomitant increase in the incidence of gram-negative sepsis (0.29/1000 vs. 1.3/1000, P = .02). The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis remained unchanged (2.7/1000 vs. 2.1/1000, P = .69). CONCLUSIONS: Published guidelines have encouraged physicians to increase the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission of GBS. This study confirms the efficacy of this approach. Unfortunately, this reduction comes at the cost of increasing the incidence of ampicillin-resistant gram-negative neonatal sepsis with a resultant increased mortality. These data provide compelling evidence that the policy of providing ampicillin chemoprophylaxis in selected patients needs to be reconsidered. (+info)