(1/126) Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function.

BACKGROUND: The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated. METHODS: The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30 continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking. RESULTS: Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.  (+info)

(2/126) Open randomised trial of intermittent very low energy diet together with nicotine gum for stopping smoking in women who gained weight in previous attempts to quit.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether attempts to prevent weight gain will increase success rates for stopping smoking. DESIGN: 16 week, open, randomised study with 1 year follow up. SETTING: Obesity unit. SUBJECTS: 287 female smokers who had quit smoking before but started again because of weight concerns. INTERVENTION: Combination of a standard smoking cessation programme with nicotine gum and a behavioural weight control programme including a very low energy diet. A control group was treated with the identical programme but without the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sustained cessation of smoking. RESULTS: After 16 weeks, 68/137 (50%) women had stopped smoking in the diet group versus 53/150 (35%) in the control group (P=0.01). Among these women, weight fell by mean 2.1 (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 1.3) kg in the diet group but increased by 1.6 (0.9 to 2.3) kg in the control group (P<0.001). After 1 year the success rates in the diet and control groups were 38/137 (28%) and 24/150 (16%) respectively (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the smoking cessation programme with an intervention to control weight helped women to stop smoking and control weight.  (+info)

(3/126) Effects of a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on in situ disappearance and on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal characteristics of growing steers.

In situ and in vivo digestibility experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability, digestibility, and safety of a return chewing gum/packaging (G/P) material mixture when fed to steers. In the in situ experiment, both ruminal and intestinal disappearances were measured. Two ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers, which were given free access to alfalfa hay (AH), were used in this study. Duplicate Dacron bags containing the G/P were incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. After ruminal incubation, the 12-, 24-, and 48-h bags were placed in the duodenum and collected in the feces to determine intestinal disappearance. In situ ruminal DM disappearance was greater than 70% for all substrates tested at 0 h, indicating high solubility of the substrates in water, and began to reach a plateau after 12 h of incubation. Intestinal in situ disappearance was not different (P>.25) from zero. In the digestion trial, four ruminally cannulated steers (337+/-21.3 kg BW; mean +/- SD) were used in a 4x4 Latin square design with the following treatments: 0) 50% corn (C), 50% AH; 10) 45% C, 45% AH, 10% G/P; 20) 40% C, 40% AH, 20% G/P; 30) 35% C, 35% AH, 30% G/P. Steers fed G/P-containing diets had greater (P<.01) DMI than the control steers. Increasing the G/P resulted in a linear (P<.05) increase in DMI. Apparent DM digestibility tended to be higher (P<.10) for the G/P-containing diets than for the control. A quadratic effect (P<.05) on digestible DMI was observed, with greater (P<.01) digestible DMI values for G/P-containing diets (4.8 vs. 5.8 kg/d). Digestible organic matter and total nonstructural carbohydrate intakes followed trends similar to those of DM. Apparent aluminum digestibility of G/P-containing diets was not different (P>.13) from zero. The level of G/P in the diet had no effect (P>.2) on total VFA concentration or ruminal pH. There was a linear decrease (P<.01) in the molar percentage of isobutyrate and isovalerate in addition to a linear increase (P<.01) in butyrate and valerate with increasing levels of G/P. There was a quadratic effect (P<.01) on molar proportions of acetate and propionate and on the acetate:propionate ratio. Results of both experiments suggest that G/P may be fed to safely replace up to 30% of corn-alfalfa hay diets for growing steers with advantages in improving DMI and digestibility.  (+info)

(4/126) Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.

The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients.  (+info)

(5/126) Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs.  (+info)

(6/126) Adsorption of oral bacteria to porous type calcium carbonate.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of [3H]-thymidine labeled oral microorganisms to porous type calcium carbonate (PCC) beads in a buffer containing human parotid saliva and to PCC combined chewing gum sheets. Adsorption rates of Streptococcus sobrinus B13 and 6715, Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Actinomyces naeslundii T14V with PCC were significantly higher than those with calcium carbonate (CC) beads (p < 0.01). Adsorption rates of S. sobrinus, S. mutans and A. naeslundii with PCC combined chewing gum were significantly higher than those with CC combined chewing gum (p < 0.01). The present results suggested that the chewing gum containing PCC may be able to exclude oral bacteria, including cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria, for prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease.  (+info)

(7/126) The impact of behavioral technology on dental caries.

Models of self-regulation of patient adherence to specific health promotion recommendations by professionals are available and have been shown effective in changing behavior. However, it is a fundamental misspecification of the caries prevention problem to look to techniques that affect the regulation of individual behavior to directly impact dental caries. Behavioral techniques are used to enhance the probability an individual will initiate, increase, or maintain the use of established caries reduction/control strategies or cease or decrease behaviors that increase caries. Behavioral techniques can also be used to affect parental behavior in a cascade of effects that can eventually lead to healthier children. Studies are needed where behaviorally oriented caries prevention actions are thought of as manipulating self-regulatory behavior and the focus of action is either on the individual or on another, such as a parent. A third category of studies should center on provider competency. Studies are recommended in each of these areas.  (+info)

(8/126) The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence.

The role of sugar substitutes such as xylitol and sorbitol in the prevention of dental caries has been investigated in several clinical studies. The purpose of this report is to review the current published evidence regarding the relationship between sugar substitutes and dental caries. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE and included studies published from 1966 to 2001. Studies that included human subjects and were published in English were included in this review. A total of fourteen clinical studies were reviewed that evaluated the effect of sorbitol or xylitol or the combination of both sugar substitutes on the incidence of dental caries. Most of the reports were of studies conducted with children outside of the United States. These studies demonstrated a consistent decrease in dental caries, ranging from 30 to 60 percent, among subjects using sugar substitutes as compared to subjects in a control group. These caries rate reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol or sorbitol as the sugar substitute in chewing gum or toothpaste. The highest caries reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol. These findings suggest that the replacement of sucrose with sorbitol and xylitol may significantly decrease the incidence of dental caries.  (+info)