(1/275) Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques.
Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
(2/275) Cutting edge: immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6.
Although CD34+ progenitor-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) express CCR6, several recent studies reported that monocyte-derived immature DCs do not do so. We observed that DCs generated from monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-beta 1 consistently responded to liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha). These immature DCs expressed one class of high-affinity binding sites for LARC, and expressed both CCR6 mRNA and protein. Therefore, LARC-CCR6 interaction presumably also contributes to the regulation of trafficking of monocyte-derived DCs, and utilization of TGF-beta can potentially provide a ready source of CCR6+ monocyte-derived DCs for therapeutic purposes. (+info)
(3/275) Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6.
Defensins contribute to host defense by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. This report shows that human beta-defensins are also chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. Human beta-defensin was selectively chemotactic for cells stably transfected to express human CCR6, a chemokine receptor preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The beta-defensin-induced chemotaxis was sensitive to pertussis toxin and inhibited by antibodies to CCR6. The binding of iodinated LARC, the chemokine ligand for CCR6, to CCR6-transfected cells was competitively displaced by beta-defensin. Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6. (+info)
(4/275) MIP-3alpha induces human eosinophil migration and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/p44 MAPK).
The CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) is the product of recent electronic cloning efforts, however, little characterization of its spectrum of biological effects has been undertaken. Human eosinophils exhibited pertussis-toxin-sensitive migration in response to human recombinant (hr)MIP-3alpha. Messenger RNA for the MIP-3alpha receptor, CCR-6, and low levels of surface expression were demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and FACS analysis. Analyses of cell signaling revealed dose-dependent increases in intracellular calcium mobilization, calcium transients that were, however, greatly reduced when compared with MCP-3-induced responses. Further investigations of MIP-3alpha-induced signal transduction revealed time- and dose-dependent, partially pertussis toxin-dependent, increases in phosphorylation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that occurred at 10- to 100-fold lower concentrations, and that were linked to a phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. These results suggest that MIP-3alpha can regulate multiple, parallel signal transduction pathways in eosinophils, and suggest that MAPK activation by MIP-3alpha in eosinophils is a significant signaling pathway for migration induction. (+info)
(5/275) In breast carcinoma tissue, immature dendritic cells reside within the tumor, whereas mature dendritic cells are located in peritumoral areas.
We have analyzed the presence of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs) within adenocarcinoma of the breast using immunohistochemistry. Immature DCs were defined by expression of CD1a-, Langerin-, and intracellular major histocompatibility complex class II-rich vesicles. Mature DCs were defined by expression of CD83 and DC-Lamp. Breast carcinoma cells were defined by morphology and/or cytokeratin expression. We demonstrate two levels of heterogeneity of DCs infiltrating breast carcinoma tissue: (a) immature CD1a(+) DCs, mostly of the Langerhans cell type (Langerin(+)), were retained within the tumor bed in 32/32 samples and (b) mature DCs, CD83(+)DC-Lamp(+), present in 20/32 samples, are confined to peritumoral areas. The high numbers of immature DCs found in the tumor may be best explained by high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha expression by virtually all tumor cells. Confirming the immature/mature DC compartmentalization pattern, in vitro-generated immature DCs adhere to the tumor cells, whereas mature DCs adhere selectively to peritumoral areas. In some cases, T cells are clustering around the mature DCs in peritumoral areas, thus resembling the DC-T cell clusters of secondary lymphoid organs, which are characteristic of ongoing immune reactions. (+info)
(6/275) Down-regulation of the beta-chemokine receptor CCR6 in dendritic cells mediated by TNF-alpha and IL-4.
Chemokines are involved in the control of dendritic cell (DC) trafficking, which is critical for the immune response. We have generated DC from human umbilical cord blood CD34+ progenitors cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and stem cell factor. Using an anti-CCR6 monoclonal antibody, we observed that these cells showed maximum expression of this beta-chemokine receptor when they were immature, as determined by their relatively low expression of several DC maturation markers such as CD1a, CD11c, CD14, CD40, CD80, and CD83. Immature DC responded strongly to macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha), the CCR6 ligand, in migration and calcium mobilization assays. CCR6 expression decreased in parallel with the DC maturation induced by prolonged TNF-alphaq treatments. Interleukin-4 was also able to decrease CCR6 protein levels. Our findings suggest that the MIP-3alpha/CCR6 interaction plays an important role in the trafficking of immature DC to chemokine production sites such as injured or inflamed peripheral tissues, where DC undergo maturation on contact with antigens. (+info)
(7/275) Macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha is involved in the constitutive trafficking of epidermal langerhans cells.
Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a(+) LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha. In contrast, CD14(+) precursors of DC and monocytes are not attracted by MIP-3alpha. LCs lose the migratory responsiveness to MIP-3alpha during their maturation, and non-LC DCs do not acquire MIP-3alpha sensitivity. The notion that MIP-3alpha may be responsible for selective LC recruitment into the epidermis is further supported by the following observations: (a) MIP-3alpha is expressed by keratinocytes and venular endothelial cells in clinically normal appearing human skin; (b) LCs express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6, the sole MIP-3alpha receptor both in situ and in vitro; and (c) non-LC DCs that are not found in normal epidermis lack CCR6. The mature forms of LCs and non-LC DCs display comparable sensitivity for MIP-3beta, a CCR7 ligand, suggesting that DC subtype-specific chemokine responses are restricted to the committed precursor stage. Although LC precursors express primarily CCR6, non-LC DC precursors display a broad chemokine receptor repertoire. These findings reflect a scenario where the differential expression of chemokine receptors by two different subpopulations of DCs determines their functional behavior. One type, the LC, responds to MIP-3alpha and enters skin to screen the epidermis constitutively, whereas the other type, the "inflammatory" DC, migrates in response to a wide array of different chemokines and is involved in the amplification and modulation of the inflammatory tissue response. (+info)
(8/275) The exodus subfamily of CC chemokines inhibits the proliferation of chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitors.
Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue and play important roles in disease processes. Among the biologic activities of chemokines is inhibition of proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors. However, chemokines that inhibit normal progenitors rarely inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We and others recently cloned a subfamily of CC chemokines that share similar amino-terminal peptide sequences and a remarkable ability to chemoattract T cells. These chemokines, Exodus-1/LARC/MIP-3alpha, Exodus-2/SLC/6Ckine/TCA4, and Exodus-3/CKbeta11/MIP-3beta, were found to inhibit proliferation of normal human marrow progenitors. The study described here found that these chemokines also inhibited the proliferation of progenitors in every sample of marrow from patients with CML that was tested. This demonstration of consistent inhibition of CML progenitor proliferation makes the 3 Exodus chemokines unique among chemokines. (Blood. 2000;95:1506-1508) (+info)