Suppression of cell cycle progression by flavonoids: dependence on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (1/44)

Some flavonoids are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cause cell cycle arrest. The dependency of the cytostatic effects of five flavonoids (flavone, alpha-naphthoflavone, apigenin, 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone and 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) on a functional AHR was examined in AHR-containing rat hepatoma 5L cells and an AHR-deficient cell line (BP8) derived from the 5L line. The potent AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was cytostatic to the 5L line due to the induction of a G(1) arrest and dramatically elevated steady-state levels of CYP1A1 mRNA. TCDD affected neither the proliferation nor CYP1A1 mRNA contents of BP8 cells. With the exception of apigenin, the flavonoids under study induced G(1) arrest in both 5L and BP8 cells when used at concentrations at which they functioned as AHR agonists, but not antagonists. Apigenin-treated 5L and BP8 cultures primarily arrested in G(2)/M. The AHR-containing murine hepatoma cell line 1c1c7 arrested following exposure to AHR agonist concentrations of flavone and alpha-naphthoflavone, but not TCDD. Unlike the G(1) arrest observed in 5L cultures, the latter two flavonoids caused principally G(2)/M arrest in 1c1c7 cells. These studies demonstrate that the cytostatic activities of flavonoids do not require the AHR and the site of checkpoint arrest with a specific flavonoid can vary with cell type.  (+info)

Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase by apigenin and related flavonoids in mouse macrophages. (2/44)

Prostaglandins biosynthesis and nitric oxide production have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of various flavonoids and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the activities of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Apigenin, genistein and kaempferol were markedly active inhibitors of transcriptional activation of COX-2, with IC(50) < 15 microM. In addition, apigenin and kaempferol were also markedly active inhibitors of transcriptional activation of iNOS, with IC(50) < 15 microM. Of those compounds tested, apigenin was the most potent inhibitor of transcriptional activation of both COX-2 and iNOS. Western and northern blot analyses demonstrated that apigenin significantly blocked protein and mRNA expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-activated macrophages. Transient transfection experiments showed that LPS caused an approximately 4-fold increase in both COX-2 and iNOS promoter activities, these increments were suppressed by apigenin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments indicated that apigenin blocked the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). The inhibition of NF-kB activation occurs through the prevention of inhibitor kB (IkB) degradation. Transient transfection experiments also showed that apigenin inhibited NF-kB-dependent transcriptional activity. Finally, we showed that apigenin could inhibit the IkB kinase activity induced by LPS or interferon-gamma. The results of further studies suggest that suppression of transcriptional activation of COX-2 and iNOS by apigenin might mainly be mediated through inhibition of IkB kinase activity. This study suggests that modulation of COX-2 and iNOS by apigenin and related flavonoids may be important in the prevention of carcinogenesis and inflammation.  (+info)

Effects of inhalation of essential oils on EEG activity and sensory evaluation. (3/44)

The purpose of this study was to investigate EEG changes in subjects directly after inhalation of essential oils, and subsequently, to observe any effect on subjective evaluations. EEG and sensory evaluation were assessed in 13 healthy female subjects in four odor conditions. Four odor conditions (including lavender, chamomile, sandalwood and eugenol) were applied respectively for each subject in the experiment. The results were as follows. 1) Four basic factors were extracted from 22 adjective pairs by factor analysis of the sensory evaluation. The first factor was "comfortable feeling", the second "cheerful feeling", the third "natural feeling" and the fourth "feminine feeling". In the score of the first factor (comfortable feeling), the odors in order of high contribution are lavender, eugenol, chamomile and sandalwood. 2) Alpha 1 (8-10 Hz) of EEG at parietal and posterior temporal regions significantly decreased soon after the onset of inhalation of lavender oil (p < 0.01). Significant changes of alpha 1 were also observed after inhalation of eugenol or chamomile. The change after inhalation of sandalwood was not significant. These results showed that alpha 1 activity significantly decreased under odor conditions in which subjects felt comfortable, and showed no significant change under odor conditions in which subjects felt uncomfortable. These results suggest a possible correlation between alpha 1 activity and subjective evaluation.  (+info)

A new nonpeptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist isolated from the plants of Compositae. (4/44)

To find new tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists from natural sources, we examined the tachykinin antagonist activity in the extracts of approximately 200 species of plants by the use of isolated guinea pig ileum. As a result, we discovered a novel and potent NK1 receptor antagonist in the extract of dried flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile). The structure of the antagonist was established as N1,N5,N10,N14-tetrakis[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoyl]-1,5,10,14-tetraazatetrade cane (tetracoumaroyl spermine, 1a). The Ki values of 1a, estimated from the inhibitory action on the substance P (SP)-induced contraction of the guinea pig ileum and the inhibition of the binding of [3H][Sar9, Met(O2)11]SP to human NK1 receptors, were 21.9 nM and 3.3 nM, respectively. 1a is the first potent NK1 receptor antagonist from natural sources and it has a unique structure of a polyacylated spermine. 1a was concentrated in pollen of Matricaria chamomilla L. and was also found in the extracts of flowers of other four species of Compositae. In addition, we found N1,N5,N10-tris[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoyl]-1,5,10,14-tetraazatetradecane (2) as a new compound in the extract of flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L., which did not exhibit any tachykinin antagonist activity. A number of related compounds were synthesized, and the structure-activity relationship was studied.  (+info)

Beta-eudesmol, a new sesquiterpene component in intact and organized root of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita). (5/44)

Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry are used to identify a new sesqiterpene, beta-eudesmol, which seems to be a characteristic essential oil component of the intact and in vitro organized root of chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert]. It is identified on three types of stationary phases by GC. The confirmation of identity is carried out by comparison of mass spectra with those reported in the literature and measured from a reference compound. The percentage evaluation of the oil component is made by area normalization, on the basis of three parallel measurements. Among the cultivated and wild chamomile species examined, the wild species from the areas of Szeghalom contain the highest quantity of beta-eudesmol (9.25% in the total essential oil).  (+info)

Hypnotic activities of chamomile and passiflora extracts in sleep-disturbed rats. (6/44)

In the present study, we investigated hypnotic activities of chamomile and passiflora extracts using sleep-disturbed model rats. A significant decrease in sleep latency was observed with chamomile extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg, while passiflora extract showed no effects on sleep latency even at a dose of 3000 mg/kg. No significant effects were observed with both herbal extracts on total times of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, at a dose of 3 mg/kg showed a significant antagonistic effect on the shortening in sleep latency induced by chamomile extract. No significant effects were observed with chamomile and passiflora extracts on delta activity during non-REM sleep. In conclusion, chamomile extract is a herb having benzodiazepine-like hypnotic activity.  (+info)

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms. (7/44)

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers.  (+info)

Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi. (8/44)

The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.  (+info)