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(1/1426) Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions.

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

(2/1426) Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour.

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

(3/1426) Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women.

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

(4/1426) Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women.

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

(5/1426) Sexual behaviour and papillomavirus exposure in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a population-based case-control study.

Sexual history is an established risk determinant for cervical neoplasia. It is not clear if human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure entirely explains the sexual behaviour-related risk or if other sexually transmitted agents may act as cofactors for HPV in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether HPV exposure or HPV persistence explains the sexual history-related risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using a population-based case-control study of most of the 254 women referred to colposcopy in the Vasterbotten county in Sweden because of an abnormal cervical smear during October 1993 to December 1995 and 320 age-matched women from the general population. The women were interviewed for sexual history and tested for presence of serum antibodies to HPV-16, -18 and -33 as well as for presence of HPV DNA in cervical brush samples. HPV-16, -18 and -33 seropositivity was specific for the corresponding type of HPV DNA, dependent on the lifetime sexual history and associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of CIN 3. There was no sexual history-related risk of CIN among HPV-seropositive women and adjustment for HPV DNA presence explained the sexual history-related risk of CIN. In conclusion, HPV exposure appeared to explain the sexual history-related risk of high-grade CIN.  (+info)

(6/1426) Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. I. Differential T-helper and IgG responses in relation to HPV infection and disease outcome.

T-helper (Th) cell-dependent IL-2 production and plasma IgG responses to virus-like particles consisting of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) major capsid protein L1 (L1-VLP) were determined in patients with cytological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) participating in a non-intervention prospective cohort study. IgG responses were associated with HPV-16 persistence and high-grade CIN lesions, while high frequencies of Th responses were observed in patients with both virus clearance and virus persistence, irrespective of CIN grade. The IgG response was found in conjunction with an IL-2 response to L1-VLP in 87% of the patients. Recognition of the HPV-16 L1 Th epitope (amino acids 311-335) was found to be more closely associated than recognition of L1-VLP as a whole to HPV exposure and CIN development. Among the HPV-16+ patients included in this study, those showing a Th response to amino acids 311-335 were more likely to carry the HLA DRB1*11/DQB1*0301 haplotype, while those showing an IgG response to L1-VLP were more likely to carry DRB1*0101/DQB1*0501. However, neither cell-mediated nor humoral immune responses against HPV-16 L1 appear to be sufficient for the natural control of HPV infection and CIN development.  (+info)

(7/1426) Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. II. Systemic but not local IgA responses correlate with clearance of HPV-16.

To investigate whether there is an association between local or systemic IgG and IgA responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles (VLP) containing L1 and L2 and the possible influence of these responses on clearance of HPV-16 and its associated lesions, cervical mucus samples from 125 patients and plasma samples from 100 patients, all participating in a non-intervention cohort study of women with abnormal cytology, were analysed. The results show that local IgG and IgA HPV-16 VLP-specific antibodies do not correlate with virus clearance. However, systemic IgG responses were more frequently detected in patients with a persistent infection (11/24) compared with patients with cleared HPV-16 infections (3/28, P = 0.006). Furthermore, the ultimate development of high-grade lesions was associated with systemic VLP-specific IgG reactivity (P = 0.026). By contrast, systemic IgA responses were correlated with virus clearance (7/28 clearance compared with 1/24 persistence patients, P = 0.06). This correlation was statistically significant when only those clearance patients who tested HPV-16 DNA-positive at more than one visit were included in the analysis (5/11 compared with 1/24, P = 0.007). As these systemic IgA responses were not accompanied by local IgA responses, the systemic IgA responses in HPV-16 clearance patients are suggested to be a by-product of a successful cellular immune response induced at the local lymph nodes, mediated by cytokines.  (+info)

(8/1426) Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number is dependent on grade of cervical disease and HPV type.

The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was investigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and 270 with normal cytology. Quantitative, PCR-based fluorescent assays for each of the HPV genotypes and for the beta-globin gene were used. The amount of cellular DNA increased significantly with increasing disease; thus, HPV was expressed as copies per microgram of cellular DNA. The assay had a dynamic range of >10(7), allowing documentation for the first time of the wide range of HPV copy numbers seen in clinical specimens. Median HPV DNA copy number varied by more than 10(4) among the viral types. HPV16 was present in the highest copy number; over 55% of HPV16-positive samples contained more than 10(8) copies/microgram. Median copy number for HPV16 showed dramatic increases with increasing epithelial abnormality, an effect not seen with the other HPV types. HPV16 increased from a median of 2.2 x 10(7) in patients with normal cytology, to 4.1 x 10(7) in CIN I patients, to 1.3 x 10(9) copies/microgram in CIN II-III patients. Even when stratified by cervical disease and viral type, the range of viral DNA copies per microgram of cellular DNA was quite large, precluding setting a clinically significant cutoff value for "high" copy numbers predictive of disease. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of HPV quantitation requires reassessment and is assay dependent.  (+info)