Effect of ligands that increase cAMP on caerulein-induced zymogen activation in pancreatic acini. (65/463)

The pathological activation of proteases within the pancreatic acinar cell is critical to initiating pancreatitis. Stimulation of acinar cells with supraphysiological concentrations of the CCK analog caerulein (CER) leads to protease activation and pancreatitis. Agents that sensitize the acinar cell to the effects of CCK might contribute to disease. The effects of physiological ligands that increase acinar cell cAMP [secretin, VIP, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP)] on CER-induced responses were examined in isolated rat pancreatic acini. Each ligand sensitized the acinar cell to zymogen activation by physiological concentrations of CER (0.1 nM). VIP and PACAP but not secretin also enhanced activation by supraphysiological concentrations of CER (0.1 muM). A cell-permeable cAMP analog also sensitized the acinar cell to CER-induced activation. The cAMP antagonist Rp-8-Br-cAMP inhibited these sensitizing effects. These findings suggest that ligands that increase acinar cell cAMP levels can sensitize the acinar cell to the effects of CCK-induced zymogen activation.  (+info)

The role of nitric oxide in experimental cerulein induced pancreatitis. (66/463)

An enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO), due to the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation, but its role in acute pancreatitis still remains controversial. To clarify the role of NO in acute pancreatitis, the present experiment investigated the expression of iNOS and the effect of NOS inhibition on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Group I received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of normal saline. Group II received two ip injections of cerulein (20 microgram/kg). Group III received injections of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (30 mg/kg) with cerulein. Group IV received L-arginine (250 mg/kg) with cerulein and L-NAME. The expression of iNOS in the pancreas was examined by western blot analysis. The plasma concentration of NO metabolites was measured. The severity of pancreatitis was assessed by measuring serum amylase, pancreas water content and histopathological examination. Compared with controls, the cerulein group displayed significantly increased expression of iNOS and raised plasma NO metabolites. Treatment with L-NAME significantly decreased hyperamylasemia, plasma NO level, and the extent of pancreatic injury. Treatment with L-arginine reversed the effects of L-NAME. These findings suggest that an enhanced formation of NO by iNOS plays an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis, and inhibition of NO production has the beneficial effects in reducing pancreas injury.  (+info)

5-lipoxygenase knockout mice exhibit a resistance to acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein. (67/463)

Here we compare the degree of pancreatitis caused by cerulein in mice lacking 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and in the corresponding wild-type mice. Intraperitoneal injection of cerulein in mice resulted in severe, acute pancreatitis characterized by oedema, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis and elevated serum levels of amylase and lipase. Infiltration of pancreatic and lung tissue with neutrophils (measured as increase in myeloperoxidase activity) was associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation (increased tissue levels of malondialdehyde). Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in immunoreactivity for intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin and E-selectin in the pancreas and lung of cerulein-treated mice. In contrast, the degree of (1) pancreatic inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) up-regulation/expression of P-selectin, E-selectin and ICAM-1, and (3) neutrophil infiltration was markedly reduced in pancreatic and lung tissue obtained from cerulein-treated 5-LO-deficient mice. These findings support the view that 5-LO plays an important, pro-inflammatory role in the acute pancreatitis caused by cerulein in mice.  (+info)

Receptor strategies in pancreatitis. (68/463)

A variety of receptors on pancreatic acinar and duct cells regulate both pancreatic exocrine secretion and intracellular processes. These receptors are potential sites of action for therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists, which may reduce the level of metabolic "stress" on acinar cells, have been shown to mitigate the severity of acute pancreatitis in a number of models. Not all studies have shown a benefit, however, and differences may exist between different structural classes of antagonists. Because increased pancreatic stimulation due to loss of feedback inhibition of CCK has been proposed to contribute to the pain of some patients with chronic pancreatitis, CCK receptor antagonists could also be of benefit in this setting. Somatostatin and its analogs diminish pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes and have been effective in treating pancreatic fistulas and pseudocysts. These agents are also being evaluated for their ability to reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis (perhaps by reducing ductal pressure by diminishing secretory volume) and mitigating the severity of acute pancreatitis (possibly by reducing the metabolic load on acinar cells). Recently described secretin receptor antagonists may also have therapeutic value as a means of selectively inhibiting pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes.  (+info)

Delayed suppressive effect of a low dose of caerulein on the grooming behavior induced by the D1-receptor agonist SKF 38393. (69/463)

Caerulein (CLN, 0.8-80 micrograms/kg, s.c.) was administered to male rats 10 min or 24 hr before the injection of SKF 38393 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). The increased mouth movement and grooming behavior by SKF 38393 were suppressed dose-dependently by CLN 10 min before the SKF 38393. CLN at the dose of 0.8 micrograms/kg, given 24 hr before the SKF 38393, suppressed the grooming behavior by SKF 38393. These findings suggest that a low dose of CLN, but not a high dose, had a delayed suppressive effect on the grooming behavior induced by an excess of D1-activity.  (+info)

Glutathione monoethyl ester ameliorates caerulein-induced pancreatitis in the mouse. (70/463)

Studies in animal models suggest that oxygen radicals may be important in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Because glutathione is an essential component of the defense against radical-mediated cellular injury, we investigated whether pancreatic glutathione content is influenced by inducing acute pancreatitis and whether augmenting the intracellular supply of glutathione would alter the course of pancreatitis. Caerulein, a decapeptide cholecystokinin analogue, induces acute necrotizing pancreatitis in mice when given in high doses (50 micrograms/kg per h) over a period of 6 h. The pancreatic glutathione content (total, GSH + GSSG) in mice treated with high-dose caerulein fell to 17% of normal within 4 h of beginning caerulein and recovered toward normal after discontinuing caerulein treatment. Mice treated with glutathione monoethyl ester (20 mmol/kg 1 h before caerulein, 10 mmol/kg 3 and 7 h after starting caerulein) were found to have blunted depletion of pancreatic glutathione, diminished histologic evidence of pancreatitis (necrosis, inflammation, and vacuolization), and lower serum amylase values compared with mice treated with caerulein alone. These findings suggest that the profound depletion of pancreatic glutathione caused by hyperstimulation of the pancreas with caerulein is critically important in the pathogenesis of acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis.  (+info)

Protective effect of a microtubule stabilizer taxol on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rat. (71/463)

The effect of taxol, which is a microtubule stabilizer, was examined in a model of acute edematous pancreatitis induced in rat by the administration of caerulein. Prophylactic administration of taxol ameliorated inhibition of pancreatic secretion, increased level of serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and histological alterations in this model. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that taxol stabilized the arrangement of microtubules by the action of promoting tubulin polymerization and prevented inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion. In isolated rat pancreatic acini, taxol reversed the inhibition of amylase secretion induced by supramaximal concentrations of cholecystokinin octapeptide and did not affect the binding of cholecystokinin octapeptide to its receptor. The results obtained in this study suggest that microtubule disorganization is the initiating event in caerulein-induced pancreatitis and that the inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion by interfering with intracellular vesicular transport due to microtubule disorganization causes caerulein-induced pancreatitis.  (+info)

CCK-JMV-180, an analog of cholecystokinin, releases intracellular calcium from an inositol trisphosphate-independent pool in rat pancreatic acini. (72/463)

In pancreatic acinar cells cholecystokinin and its analogs, caerulein and CCK-JMV-180, stimulate an increase in intracellular free [Ca2+] by releasing Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial intracellular pools. It is generally believed that the caerulein-induced release of Ca2+ is mediated by phospholipase C-catalyzed production of 1,4,5-inositol triphosphate (IP3). In this study we have investigated the source and mechanism of Ca2+ release induced by CCK-JMV-180 using streptolysin O-permeabilized pancreatic acinar cells. Caerulein-stimulated release of Ca2+ was completely blocked by either neomycin, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, or by heparin, an IP3 receptor antagonist. These observations are compatible with the conclusion that caerulein releases Ca2+ from an IP3-sensitive pool. In contrast to caerulein, however, CCK-JMV-180-stimulated release of Ca2+ was not blocked by either neomycin or by heparin, indicating that CCK-JMV-180 releases Ca2+ by mechanisms which do not involve the generation or action of IP3. CCK-JMV-180 stimulated the release of Ca2+ even after the IP3-sensitive pool had been completely emptied by prior exposure to a supramaximally stimulating concentration of IP3 (40 microM). Prestimulation of permeabilized acini with 20 mM caffeine did not abolish the CCK-JMV-180-induced Ca2+ release. These results indicate that CCK-JMV-180 stimulates release of Ca2+ from a hitherto uncharacterized intracellular storage pool which is insensitive to either IP3 or caffeine.  (+info)