Curcumin ameliorates ethanol and nonethanol experimental pancreatitis. (57/463)

Treatments for pancreatitis are limited. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB, a key regulator of inflammatory molecule expression, is an early event in experimental pancreatitis and correlates with the inflammatory response. We report here that curcumin, a natural phytochemical known to inhibit NF-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1, another important proinflammatory transcription factor, ameliorates pancreatitis in two rat models. In both cerulein pancreatitis and pancreatitis induced by a combination of ethanol diet and low-dose CCK, curcumin improved the severity of the disease as measured by a number of parameters (histology, serum amylase, pancreatic trypsin, and neutrophil infiltration). Curcumin markedly inhibited NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation, assessed by DNA binding and degradation of inhibitory IkappaB proteins, and the induction of mRNAs for cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, the chemokine KC, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in pancreas. Curcumin also blocked CCK-induced NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in isolated pancreatic acini. Our findings indicate that blocking key signals of the inflammatory response ameliorates pancreatitis in both ethanol and nonethanol models. They suggest that curcumin, which is currently in clinical trials for cancer prevention, may be useful for treatment of pancreatitis.  (+info)

Role of endogenous melatonin and its MT2 receptor in the modulation of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in the rat. (58/463)

The present study investigated the involvement of endogenous melatonin in the prevention of pancreatic damage provoked by caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) by using the luzindole, the antagonist of melatonin MT2 receptors. CIP was produced by subcutaneous infusion of caerulein to conscious rats (25 microg/kg). Luzindole (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg) was given as an intraperitoneal bolus injection 30 min prior to the start of CIP. Lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were measured in the pancreas by LPO-584 commercial kit. CIP was confirmed by histological examination and manifested by significant increases of plasma activities of amylase, lipase and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) (by 500%, 1000% and 600%, respectively) comparing to the control values. This was accompanied by a 40% limitation in pancreatic blood flow (PBF) and by 200% increase of MDA+4-HNE in the pancreas of CIP rats. Administration of luzindole to the CIP rats reduced PBF, aggravated the histological manifestations of pancreatitis, resulted in the significant augmentation of pancreatic MDA + 4-HNE content, and produced the marked increases of plasma levels of lipase, amylase and TNFalpha, comparing to the values observes in the rats with CIP alone. These results suggest that endogenous melatonin through its receptor MT2 plays an important role in the attenuation of pancreatic damage produced by overstimulation with caerulein.  (+info)

Comparison of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin in stimulation of pancreatic secretion. (59/463)

Pancreatic volume flow as well as bicarbonate and protein secretion have been measured in chronic pancreatic fistula cats and dogs in response to I.V. infusion of VIP and secretin or duodenal perfusion of sodium oleate and HCl solution. 2. VIP and secretin infused I.V. in cats produced superimposable pancreatic dose-response curves for volume flow and bicarbonate secretion, reaching almost identical observed and maximal calculated outputs with both peptides. In dogs, VIP was shown previously to be a much less effective stimulant of pancreatic secretion than secretin and the maximal observed bicarbonate output in response to VIP was only about 17% of that to secretin (Konturek, Thor, Dembinski & Krol, 1975). It is condluded that VIP in cats is a secretin-like full agonist, whereas in dogs it is a partial agonist of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. 3. In cats, secretin and VIP showed equal efficacy and their combination exhibited an augmentatory action on pancreatic bicarbonate secretion with additive kinetics, whereas in dogs, VIP was found to have a lower efficacy than secretin and to inhibit competitively secretin-induced pancreatic secretion. These results might be explained by the interaction of VIP and secretin, two chemically related peptides, on a common receptor site of the exocrine pancreas. 4. Caerulein, an analogue of CCK-PZ, infused I.V. in cats and dogs caused a negligible pancreatic bicarbonate secretion and a potent dose-dependent protein secretion. The combination of graded doses of VIP or secretin with a background dose of caerulein resulted in significantly higher bicarbonate and protein outputs than those induced by VIP or secretin alone. 5. Duodenal perfusion of sodium oleate soap in cats and dogs produced pancreatic dose-response curves for volume flow and bicarbonate output similar to those evoked by VIP in these species. Pancreatic protein secretion in response to luminal oleate was slightly higher than could be accounted for by the action of VIP alone. This might be attributed to the release by oleate not only of endogenous VIP but also CCK-PZ or to the vago-vagal reflexes from gut to pancreas. The results of our combined study on cats and dogs suggest the possibility that oleate releases VIP from the gut and that this peptide may play a physiological role in the stimulation of pancreatic secretion.  (+info)

A mouse model of severe acute pancreatitis induced with caerulein and lipopolysaccharide. (60/463)

AIM: To establish a non-traumatic, easy to induce and reproducible mouse model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) induced with caerulein and lipopolyasccharide (LPS). METHODS: Thirty-two healthy mature NIH female mice were selected and divided at random into four groups (each of 8 mice), i.e., the control group (NS group), the caerulein group (Cn group), the lipopolysaccharide group (LPS group), and the caerulein+LPS group (Cn+LPS group). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with caerulein only, or LPS only, and caerulein and LPS in combination. All the animals were then killed by neck dislocation three hours after the last intraperitoneal injection. The pancreas and exo-pancreatic organs were then carefully removed for microscopic examination. And the pancreatic acinus was further observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Pancreatic weight, serum amylase, serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of the pancreas were assayed respectively. RESULTS: (1) NS animals displayed normal pancreatic structure both in the exocrine and endocrine. In the LPS group, the pancreas was slightly edematous, with the infiltration of a few inflammatory cells and the necrosis of the adjacent fat tissues. All the animals of the Cn group showed distinct signs of a mild edematous pancreatitis characterized by interstitial edema, infiltration of neutrophil and mononuclear cells, but without obvious parenchyma necrosis and hemorrhage. In contrast, the Cn+LPS group showed more diffuse focal areas of nonviable pancreatic and hemorrhage as well as systemic organ dysfunction. According to Schmidt's criteria, the pancreatic histologic score showed that there existed significant difference in the Cn+LPS group in the interstitial edema, inflammatory infiltration, parenchyma necrosis and parenchyma homorrhage in comparison with those of the Cn group, LPS group and NS group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). (2) The ultrasturcture of acinar cells was seriously damaged in the Cn+LPS group. Chromatin margination of nuclei was present, the number and volume of vacuoles greatly increased. Zymogen granules (ZGs) were greatly decreased in number and endoplasmic reticulum exhibited whorls. The swollen mitochondria appeared, the crista of which was decreased in number or disappeared. (3) Pancreatic weight and serum amylase levels in the Cn +LPS was significantly higher than those of the NS group and the LPS group respectively (P<0.01 or P<0.05). However, the pancreatic wet weight and serum amylase concentration showed no significant difference between the Cn+LPS group and the Cn group. (4) NO concentration in the Cn+LPS group was significantly higher than that of NS group, LPS group and Cn group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). (5) The SOD and MDA concentration of the pancreas in the Cn+LPS group were significantly higher than those of NS, LPS and Cn groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The mouse model of severe acute pancreatitis could be induced with caerulein and LPS, which could be non-traumatic and easy to induce, reproducible with the same pathological characteristics as those of SAP in human, and could be used in the research on the mechanism of human SAP.  (+info)

Preprotachykinin-A gene deletion protects mice against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. (61/463)

Impaired lung function in severe acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene products substance P and neurokinin (NK)-A have been shown to play important roles in neurogenic inflammation. Substance P acts primarily (but not exclusively) via the NK1 receptor. NKA acts primarily via the NK2 receptor. Earlier work has shown that knockout mice deficient in NK1 receptors are protected against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. NK1 receptors, however, bind other peptides in addition to substance P, not all of which are derived from the PPT-A gene. To examine the role of PPT-A gene products in acute pancreatitis, the effect of PPT-A gene deletion on the severity of acute pancreatitis and the associated lung injury was investigated. Deletion of PPT-A almost completely protected against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury, with a partial protection against local pancreatic damage. These results show that PPT-A gene products are critical proinflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis and the associated lung injury.  (+info)

Mechanism of kinin release during experimental acute pancreatitis in rats: evidence for pro- as well as anti-inflammatory roles of oedema formation. (62/463)

1 Kinin B(2) receptor antagonists or tissue kallikrein (t-KK) inhibitors prevent oedema formation and associated sequelae in caerulein-induced pancreatitis in the rat. We have now further investigated the mechanism of kinin generation in the pancreas. 2 Kinins were elevated in the pancreatic tissue already before oedema formation became manifest. Peak values (421+/-59 pmol g(-1) dry wt) were reached at 45 min and remained elevated for at least 2 h; a second increase was observed at 24 h. Pretreatment with the B(2) receptor antagonist icatibant abolished kinin formation, while post-treatment was ineffective. 3 Total kininogen levels were very low in the pancreas of controls, but increased 75-fold during acute pancreatitis. This increase was absent in rats that were pretreated with icatibant. 4 During pancreatitis, t-KK-like and plasma kallikrein (p-KK)-like activity in the pancreas, as well as trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) increased significantly. Icatibant pretreatment further augmented t-KK about 100-fold, while p-KK was significantly attenuated; TAP levels remained unaffected. 5 Endogenous protease inhibitors (alpha(1)-antitrypsin, alpha(2)-macroglobulin) were low in normal tissues, but increased 45- and four-fold, respectively, during pancreatitis. This increase was abolished when oedema formation was prevented by icatibant. 6 In summary, oedema formation is initiated by t-KK; the ensuing plasma protein extravasation supplies further kininogen and active p-KK to the tissue. Concomitantly, endogenous protease inhibitors in the oedema fluid inhibit up to 99% of active t-KK. Our data thus suggest a complex interaction between kinin action and kinin generation involving positive and negative feedback actions of the inflammatory oedema.  (+info)

Influence of substrate and/or neurohormonal mimic on in vitro pancreatic enzyme release from calves postruminally infused with partially hydrolyzed starch and/or casein. (63/463)

Our objectives were to determine the effects of neuroendocrine challenge and substrates on in vitro alpha-amylase and trypsin release in pancreatic tissue collected from Holstein calves (n = 24; 88 +/- 3 kg) abomasally infused for 10 d with tap water (control), partially hydrolyzed starch (SH; 4 g/[kg of BW x d]) and/ or casein (0.6 g/[kg of BW x d]). The caudal portion of the pancreas was removed, rinsed with ice-cold saline, cut into approximately 2 x 2-mm segments, and incubated in oxygenated Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing no substrate (control), glucose, amino acids, or VFA at 39 degrees C. After 60 min of incubation, neurohormonal mimics (none; control), carbachol (acetylcholine analog; 10 microM final), or caerulein (cholecystokinin mimic; 100 nM final) were added to the flasks and tissue was incubated for 60 min. Pancreatic tissue concentrations and in vitro release of alpha-amylase and trypsin decreased (P < 0.001) in calves abomasally infused with SH. Carbachol increased (P < 0.10) alpha-amylase and trypsin release in tissue collected from all calves. An effect of caerulein to increase alpha-amylase release (P < 0.10) was only observed with prior exposure to abomasal casein infusion in vivo or with simultaneous incubation with amino acids in vitro. Caerulein increased (P < 0.10) trypsin release in tissue collected from all calves except for those receiving SH + casein. Glucose decreased (P < 0.10) alpha-amylase release from pancreatic tissue collected from calves receiving abomasal control and casein treatments. Amino acids decreased (P < 0.10) alpha-amylase and trypsin release from pancreatic tissue collected from calves receiving the abomasal control treatment. Glucose, amino acids, and VFA decreased (P < 0.10) trypsin release from tissue collected from calves receiving abomasal SH. These data indicate that carbachol can stimulate pancreatic enzyme release in vitro. Caerulein, however, is only effective in stimulating in vitro pancreatic enzyme release in tissue from calves with an increased postruminal protein supply or in tissue incubated with amino acids. The results indicate that postruminal and local nutrients might be important in altering the responsiveness to a neuroendocrine challenge and could be an important regulatory event involved with dietary adaptation in ruminants.  (+info)

Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis inhibits protein synthesis through effects on eIF2B and eIF4F. (64/463)

Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been shown in some studies to inhibit total protein synthesis in the pancreas, whereas in other studies, protein synthesis was not affected. Previous in vitro work has shown that high concentrations of cholecystokinin both inhibit protein synthesis and inhibit the activity of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2B by increasing the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha. We therefore evaluated in C57BL/6 mice the effects of caerulein-induced AP on pancreatic protein synthesis, eIF2B activity and other protein translation regulatory mechanisms. Repetitive hourly injections of caerulein were administered at 50 microg/kg ip. Pancreatic protein synthesis was reduced 10 min after the initial caerulein administration and was further inhibited after three and five hourly injections. Caerulein inhibited the two major regulatory points of translation initiation: the activity of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B (with an increase of eIF2alpha phosphorylation) and the formation of the eIF4F complex due, in part, to degradation of eIF4G. This inhibition was not accounted for by changes in the upstream stimulatory pathway, because caerulein activated Akt as well as phosphorylating the downstream effectors of mTOR, 4E-BP1, and ribosomal protein S6. Caerulein also decreased the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2, implying that this translation factor was not inhibited in AP. Thus the inhibition of pancreatic protein synthesis in this model of AP most likely results from the inhibition of translation initiation as a result of increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation, reduction of eIF2B activity, and the inhibition of eIF4F complex formation.  (+info)