Changes in myocardial blood flow and S-T segment elevation following coronary artery occlusion in dogs.
The relationship between regional blood flow and epicardial S-T segment elevation was studied in 26 open-chest anesthetized dogs with left anterior coronary artery ligations. Changes in myocardial blood flow, measured with 15 plus or minus 5mu (diameter) microspheres labeled with 141-Ce, 85-Sr, and 169-Yb, were correlated with summated S-T segment elevations 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after coronary artery occlusion. In normal areas, myocardial blood flow was 113 plus or minus 5 ml/min 100 g- minus 1 and summated S-T segment elevation was 0.3 plus or minus 0.2 mv. Fifteen minutes after coronary artery occlusion in 26 dogs, S-T segment elevation was 5.7 plus or minus 0.7 mv over the center of the infarct and myocardial blood flow was 10 plus or minus 1 ml/min 100 g- minus 1; over the border zone, myocardial blood flow was 63 plus or minus 4 ml/min 100 g- minus 1 and S-T segment elevation was 3.1 plus or minus 0.1 mv. One third of the areas with a myocardial blood flow of 10 ml/min 100 g- minus 1 or less had no S-T segment elevation. In the center and border zones of the infarct in 9 dogs, myocardial blood flow increased from 11 plus or minus 2 and 67 plus or minus 8 ml/min 100 g- minus 1 15 minutes after occlusion to 20 plus or minus 4 and 84 plus or minus 12 ml/min 100 g- minus 1, respectively, 2 hours after coronary artery occlusion. These increases were not associated with a significant reduction in summated S-T segment elevation. The results do not suggest a simple quantitative relationship between epicardial S-T segment elevation and myocardial blood flow following acute coronary artery occlusion. (+info)
Non-invasive quantification of liver perfusion with dynamic computed tomography and a dual-input one-compartmental model.
Various liver diseases lead to significant alterations of the hepatic microcirculation. Therefore, quantification of hepatic perfusion has the potential to improve the assessment and management of liver diseases. Most methods used to quantify liver perfusion are invasive or controversial. This paper describes and validates a non-invasive method for the quantification of liver perfusion using computed tomography (CT). Dynamic single-section CT of the liver was performed after intravenous bolus administration of a low-molecular-mass iodinated contrast agent. Hepatic, aortic and portal-venous time-density curves were fitted with a dual-input one-compartmental model to calculate liver perfusion. Validation studies consisted of simultaneous measurements of hepatic perfusion with CT and with radiolabelled microspheres in rabbits at rest and after adenosine infusion. The feasibility and reproducibility of the CT method in humans was assessed by three observers in 10 patients without liver disease. In rabbits, significant correlations were observed between perfusion measurements obtained with CT and with microspheres (r=0.92 for total liver perfusion, r=0.81 for arterial perfusion and r=0.85 for portal perfusion). In patients, total liver plasma perfusion measured with CT was 112+/-28 ml.min(-1).100 ml(-1), arterial plasma perfusion was 18+/-12 ml.min(-1).100 ml(-1) and portal plasma perfusion was 93+/-31 ml.min(-1).100 ml(-1). The measurements obtained by the three observers were not significantly different from each other (P>0.1). Our results indicate that dynamic CT combined with a dual-input one-compartmental model provides a valid and reliable method for the non-invasive quantification of perfusion in the normal liver. (+info)
Lung albumin accumulation is spatially heterogeneous but not correlated with regional pulmonary perfusion.
The contribution of pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity to the development of regional differences in lung injury and edema is unknown. To test whether regional differences in pulmonary perfusion are associated with regional differences in microvascular function during lung injury, pigs were mechanically ventilated in the prone position and infused with endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 0.15 microg. kg(-1). h(-1); n = 8) or saline (n = 4) for 4 h. Extravascular albumin accumulation and perfusion were measured in multiple approximately 0.7-ml lung regions by injecting pigs with radiolabeled albumin and radioactive microspheres, respectively. Extravascular albumin accumulation was spatially heterogeneous but not correlated with regional perfusion. Extravascular albumin accumulation was greater in dorsal than ventral regions, and regions with similar albumin accumulation were spatially clustered. This spatial organization was less evident in endotoxemic than control pigs. We conclude that there are regional differences in lung albumin accumulation that are spatially organized but not mediated by regional differences in pulmonary perfusion. We speculate that regional differences in microvascular pressure or endothelial function may account for the observed distribution of extravascular albumin accumulation. (+info)
Pulmonary neoplasms in rats that inhaled cerium-144 dioxide.
The lung neoplasms induced in rats by inhaled, internally deposited 144CeO2 were described and classified using histologic criteria. F344 rats were exposed once or repeatedly by inhalation to 144CeO2 and observed for their life span. There was significant life shortening only in those rats with the highest radiation doses. In these rats, there was a high percentage of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, as well as much lower percentages of adenocarcinomas of the lung, hemangiosarcomas of the lung, and pleural mesotheliomas. At lower doses, adenocarcinomas were the most predominant tumor. These adenocarcinomas were subdivided based on their histologic pattern: alveolar, papillary, tubular, or undifferentiated. Neither the mode of exposure (single or repeated) nor the sex of the rat influenced the lung tumor incidence or tumor type. The lung neoplasms induced by this beta-emitting radionuclide are similar in nature to those induced by alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the lung in rats. However, the radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the lung differ from those induced by heavy particle loads of nonradioactive compounds. The radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas occur in higher incidence and have a more malignant behavior than those induced by heavy particle loads. (+info)
Revascularisation of bone grafts in rats.
Revascularisation of syngeneic and allogeneic intramuscular bone grafts have been studied using radioactive microspheres to measure the ingrowth of blood vessels. New bone formation and resorption were measured by 85strontium uptake and by graft weight reduction. Revascularisation, and mineralisation rate were significantly higher in syngeneic grafts than in allogeneic grafts at two, three and six weeks after implantation. The syngeneic grafts lost weight faster indicating that the allogeneic grafts resorbed more slowly. The ingrowth of new vessels is impaired in allogeneic bone, and this probably inhibits the rate of bone formation and resorption of the grafts. (+info)
Distribution and Translocation of 141Ce (III) in Horseradish.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in agriculture and a large amount of them contaminate the environment and enter foods. The distribution and translocation of (141)Ce (III) in horseradish was investigated in order to help understand the biochemical behaviour and toxic mechanism of REEs in plants. METHODS: The distribution and translocation of (141)Ce (III) in horseradish were investigated using autoradiography, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG) techniques. The contents of (141)Ce (III) and nutrient elements were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). RESULTS: The results from autoradiography and LSC indicated that (141)Ce (III) could be absorbed by horseradish and transferred from the leaf to the leaf-stalk and then to the root. The content of (141)Ce (III) in different parts of horseradish was as follows: root > leaf-stalk > leaf. The uptake rates of (141)Ce (III) in horseradish changed with the different organs and time. The content of (141)Ce (III) in developing leaves was greater than that in mature leaves. The results from EMARG indicated that (141)Ce (III) could penetrate through the cell membrane and enter the mesophyll cells, being present in both extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The contents of macronutrients in horseradish were decreased by (141)Ce (III) treatment. CONCLUSIONS: (141)Ce (III) can be absorbed and transferred between organs of horseradish with time, and the distribution was found to be different at different growth stages. (141)Ce (III) can enter the mesophyll cells via apoplast and symplast channels or via plasmodesmata. (141)Ce (III) can disturb the metabolism of macronutrients in horseradish. (+info)
Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia.
This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-microns spheres through the intestines reflects the arteriovenous shunting of blood. Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)
Total cerebral ischemia: a new model system for the study of post-cardiac arrest brain damage.
The pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest brain damage is not well understood. Many of the model systems presently used to study global ischemia have serious limitations. A new model system for total cerebral ischemia (TCI), using aortic and inferior vena caval occlusion balloons, is described. This model system produces verifiable TCI and avoids surgical invasion of the thorax or the use of vasoactive drugs. It does not impede cerebral venous return and protects the cardiopulmonary system from damage. This model system can be used to study the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions following a standardized CNS global ischemic insult. (+info)