Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-dependent evasion of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase.
A type III protein secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) has been found to be required for virulence and survival within macrophages. Here, SPI2 was shown to allow Salmonella typhimurium to avoid NADPH oxidase-dependent killing by macrophages. The ability of SPI2-mutant bacteria to survive in macrophages and to cause lethal infection in mice was restored by abrogation of the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated efficient localization of the NADPH oxidase in the proximity of vacuoles containing SPI2-mutant but not wild-type bacteria, suggesting that SPI2 interferes with trafficking of oxidase-containing vesicles to the phagosome. (+info)
Improvement of efficiency of the Ce(IV)-induced DNA scission--relationship between the kinetic parameters (k(cat) and Km) and the DNA structure.
The Michaelis constant (Km) for double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and dinucleotide hydrolysis by Ce(IV) ion are 4.4, 15, and more than 40 mM, respectively. The order of the k(cat), however, is dinucleotide >> oligonucleotides. Not only the improvement of k(cat) but also that of Km is important for the design of an efficient artificial nuclease. (+info)
Rapid determination of cyanide and azide in beverages by microdiffusion spectrophotometric method.
A rapid screening method was developed for the determination of the toxic volatile anions, cyanide and azide, in beverages. This method consisted of a microdiffusion extraction combined with spectrophotometry using the Konig cyanide reaction and ferric azide complex formation in conjugation with cerium azide oxido-reduction. The time required to achieve full recovery in the extraction of hydrogen cyanide and hydrazoic acid from samples was considerably shortened by increasing the diffusion temperature from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The time required to achieve saturated color development in the Konig cyanide reaction was also shortened by increasing incubation temperature to 40 degrees C. The interference in both azide color reactions was examined for volatile compounds. Cyanide interfered only in the case of ferric azide complex formation. Sulfide, sulfate, nitrite, and acetic acid interfered in both the color reactions. The established method gave a detection limit of 6 microM for cyanide and 0.5mM for azide, and it required only 1 h to determine both anions. Cyanide and azide disappeared by evaporation from beverages during 25 degrees C storage under open conditions in a pH-dependent manner as a function of their respective pKa values of 9.2 and 4.6. (+info)
Anoxic stress leads to hydrogen peroxide formation in plant cells.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected cytochemically in plant tissues during anoxia and re-oxygenation by transmission electron microscopy using its reaction with cerium chloride to produce electron dense precipitates of cerium perhydroxides. Anoxia-tolerant yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) and rice (Oryza sativa), and anoxia-intolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and garden iris (Iris germanica) were used in the experiments. In all plants tested, anoxia and re-oxygenation increased H2O2 in plasma membranes and the apoplast. In the anoxia-tolerant species the response was delayed in time, and in highly tolerant I. pseudacorus plasma membrane associated H2O2 was detected only after 45 d of oxygen deprivation. Quantification of cerium precipitates showed a statistically significant increase in the amount of H2O2 caused by anoxia in wheat root meristematic tissue, but not in the anoxia-tolerant I. pseudacorus rhizome parenchyma. Formation of H2O2 under anoxia is considered mainly an enzymatic process (confirmed by an enzyme inhibition analysis) and is due to the trace amount of dissolved oxygen (below 10(-5) M) present in the experimental system. The data suggest oxidative stress is an integral part of oxygen deprivation stress, and emphasize the importance of the apoplast and plasma membrane in the development of the anoxic stress response. (+info)
Feasibility studies in rats fed heavy metals as multiple nutrient markers.
The nitrates of five metals (cerium, terbium, ytterbium, lutetium, and iridium) were fed to rats to determine the feasibility of their use as nonabsorbed, multiple markers for recovery, passage, and indirect apparant digestibility studies. Fecal recovery of a single oral dose was completed within 72 hours. When the salts were mixed into the diet, 48-96 hours was required to establish a steady-state concentration of markers in feces. The diurnal variation of cerium in feces was found to be considerable when it was fed twice daily as a single dose prior to each feeding. When incorporated into the diet, negligible diurnal variation in fecal concentration was noted with lutetium, and small variation was seen with other metals. In nutrient apparent digestibility studies, good agreement was generally found between direct and indirect multiple marker methods. Experiments with a daily intake marker suggest that cerium was not satisfactory as a multiple marker in which neutron activation analysis was the method of determination. (+info)
Induction of early bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana by triacontanol, cerium and lanthanum is correlated with increased endogenous concentration of isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos).
The effects of triacontanol (TRIA), applied singly or in combination with cerium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate, on bolting of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Triacontanol (0.1 to 0.6 microM) added to the culture medium induced early bolting. TRIA (0.3 microM) applied with low concentrations of cerium and lanthanum caused a synergistic stimulation of bolting. In medium containing 0.3 microM TRIA, 0.1 microM cerium nitrate and 0.1 mM lanthanum nitrate, 82% of the plants bolted 20 d after seed sowing compared to only 8.6% in basal medium and 47.8% in medium with TRIA only. The changes in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the isopentenyl adenine (IP) subfamily in the leaf and root tissues were correlated with TRIA-induced early bolting. The combined treatment of TRIA (0.3 microM), cerium nitrate (0.1 microM) and lanthanum nitrate (0.1 mM) resulted in a significant increase in the endogenous concentrations of total cytokinins of the IP subfamily in the root and leaf tissues compared to plants growing in the basal medium and medium with TRIA. The exogenous application of six natural cytokinins to the plants revealed that only isopentenyl adenosine (iPAdos) was as effective as TRIA on floral bud formation. iPAdos was also found to have similar effects as TRIA on root growth and reproductive growth. These results suggest a correlation between the early bolting induced by TRIA, cerium and lanthanum and the production of higher concentrations of endogenous iPAdos. (+info)
X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays.
Synchrotron x-radiography and a fast x-ray detector were used to record the time evolution of the transient fuel sprays from a high-pressure injector. A succession of 5.1-microsecond radiographs captured the propagation of the spray-induced shock waves in a gaseous medium and revealed the complex nature of the spray hydrodynamics. The monochromatic x-radiographs also allow quantitative analysis of the shock waves that has been difficult if not impossible with optical imaging. Under injection conditions similar to those found in operating engines, the fuel jets can exceed supersonic speeds and result in gaseous shock waves. (+info)
Measurement of dissolved oxygen based on enhanced cerium(IV) chemiluminescence.
The reaction of Ce(IV) with pyrogallol caused chemiluminescence, which was enhanced by dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen in water was able to help in the determination by enhancing the chemiluminescence intensity. The limit of detection calculated from 3sigma was 43 micromol/dm3, and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% at 613 micromol/dm3 (n = 5). The results obtained for natural and tap water samples were compared with those provided by conventional methods; the agreement between them corroborated the usefulness of the proposed method. The chemiluminescence mechanism was studied by examining the effect of interference with Cl- and measuring the chemiluminescence spectrum. The chemiluminescence emitter, however, could not be identified. (+info)