Partial purification and properties of porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase.
Porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase was purified by a simple procedure. In the final step of isoelectric focusing the enzyme was separated into two peaks of pI 6.3 (peak I) and 7.0 (peak II), which showed 3,600- and 4,000-fold enhancement of lactosylceramide-hydrolysing activity, respectively. The two peaks had identical mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight was 34,000. Neither monosialoganglioside (GM1) nor galactosylceramide was hydrolysed by the purified enzyme fractions. The optimal pH was at 4.6, and sodium taurocholate was essential for the reaction. The apparent Km was 2.3 x 10-5 M. The reaction was stimulated by sodium chloride and linoleic acid, while it was strongly inhibited by Triton X-100 and bovine serum albumin. Galactosylceramide, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, and p-nitrophenol were weak inhibitors. No effects of GM1 and galactose were observed on the hydrolysis of lactosylceramide. (+info)
Synthesis and turnover of cerebrosides and phosphatidylserine of myelin and microsomal fractions of adult and developing rat brain.
The synthesis and turnover of cerebrosides and phospholipids was followed in microsomal and myelin fractions of developing and adult rat brains after an intracerebral injection of [U-14C]serine. The kinetics of incorporation of radioactivity into microsomal and myelin cerebrosides indicate the possibility of a precursor-product relationship between cerebrosides of these membranes. The specific radioactivity of myelin cerebrosides was corrected for the deposition of newly formed cerebrosides in myelin. Multiphasic curves were obtained for the decline in specific radioactivity of myelin and microsomal cerebrosides, suggesting different cerebroside pools in these membranes. The half-life of the fast turning-over pool of cerebrosides of myelin was 7 and 22 days for the developing and adult rat brain respectively. The half-life of the slowly turning-over pool of myelin cerebrosides was about 145 days for both groups of animals. The half-life of the rapidly turning-over microsomal cerebrosides was calculated to be 20 and 40 h for the developing and adult animals respectively. The half-life of the intermediate and slowly turning-over microsomal cerebrosides was 11 and 60 days respectively, for both groups of animals. The amount of incorporation of radioactivity into microsomal cerebrosides from L-serine was greatly decreased in the adult animals, and greater amounts of the precursor were directed towards the synthesis of phosphatidylserine. In the developing animals, considerable amounts of cerebrosides were synthesized from L-serine, besides phosphatidylserine. The time-course of incorporation indicated that a precursor-product relationship exists between microsomal and myelin phosphatidylserine. The half-life of microsomal phosphatidylserine was calculated to be about 8 h for the fast turning-over pool in both groups of animals. (+info)
Divalent cation-mediated interaction between cerebroside sulfate and cerebrosides: an investigation of the effect of structural variations of lipids by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Divalent cations mediate a carbohydrate-carbohydrate association between the two major glycolipids, galactosylceramide (GalCer) and its sulfated form, cerebroside sulfate (CBS), of the myelin sheath. We have suggested that interaction between these glycolipids on apposed extracellular surfaces of myelin may be involved in the stability or function of this multilayered structure. A mutant mouse lacking galactolipids because of a disruption in the gene that encodes a galactosyltransferase forms myelin that initially appears relatively normal but is unstable. This myelin contains glucosylceramide (GlcCer) instead of GalCer. To better understand the role of GlcCer in myelin in this mutant, we have compared the ability of divalent cations to complex CBS (galactosyl form) with GlcCer or GalCer in methanol solution by using positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Because both the alpha-hydroxylated fatty acid species (HFA) and the nonhydroxylated fatty acid species (NFA) of these lipids occur in myelin, we have also compared the HFA and NFA species. In addition to monomeric Ca2+ complexes of all three lipids and oligomeric Ca2+ complexes of both GalCer and GlcCer, Ca2+ also caused heterotypic complexation of CBS to both GalCer and GlcCer. The heterotypic complexes had the greatest stability of all oligomers formed and survived better at high declustering potentials. Complexes of CBS with GlcCer were less stable than those with GalCer. This was confirmed by using the free sugars and glycosides making up the carbohydrate headgroups of these lipids. HFA species of CBS and GalCer formed more stable complexes than NFA species, but hydroxylation of the fatty acid of GlcCer had no effect. The ability of GlcCer to also complex with CBS, albeit with lower stability, may allow GlcCer to partially compensate for the absence of GalCer in the mouse mutant. (+info)
Forssman penta- and tetraglycosylceramide are xenoantigens of ostrich kidney and liver.
The heterophile antigens Galalpha1-->3Gal and N-glycolylneuraminic acid are the major obstacle to grafting mammal organs, especially from pig, to man. Lack of expression of these common xenoantigens by birds has raised interest in ostrich as a potential organ donor for xenotransplantation. Glycosphingolipids of ostrich liver and kidney were investigated for their carbohydrate determinants. Both organs were found similar in their glycolipid composition with three major species, mono-, di-, and pentaglycosylceramide. The pentaglycosylceramide was characterized as the Forssman antigen. In both organs, the ceramide portion was highly hydroxylated with prevalence of alpha-hydroxylated fatty acids, C18 phytosphingosine in kidney and C18 sphingosine in liver Forssman glycolipid. These data indicate that hydroxylation of kidney glycosphingolipids, which is found in mammals, has been maintained since the divergence of birds from other vertebrates. Characterization of a minor glycolipid as a Forssman tetraglycosylceramide built on the galabiosylceramide core indicates that the Forssman tetraglycosylceramide also exists in vivo. Its precursors, galactosyl- and galabiosylceramide, were characterized in kidney and liver. The Forssman antigen is the third heterophile antigen against which man raises natural antibodies. Its localization in the vascular endothelium and connective tissue makes ostrich an unpromising organ or cell donor for xenotransplantation to man. (+info)
Lipid-dependent targeting of G proteins into rafts.
Domains rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, or rafts, may organize signal transduction complexes at the plasma membrane. Raft lipids are believed to exist in a state similar to the liquid-ordered phase. It has been proposed that proteins with a high affinity for an ordered lipid environment will preferentially partition into rafts (Melkonian, K. A., Ostermeyer, A. G., Chen, J. Z., Roth, M. G., and Brown, D. A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3910-3917). We investigated the possibility that lipid-lipid interactions between lipid-modified proteins and raft lipids mediate targeting of proteins to these domains. G protein monomers or trimers were reconstituted in liposomes, engineered to mimic raft domains. Assay for partitioning of G proteins into rafts was based on Triton X-100 insolubility. Myristoylation and palmitoylation of Galpha(i) were necessary and sufficient for association with liposomes and partitioning into rafts. Strikingly, the amount of fatty-acylated Galpha(i) in rafts was significantly reduced when myristoylated Galpha(i) was thioacylated with cis-unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fatty acids such as palmitate. Prenylated betagamma subunits were excluded from rafts, whether reconstituted alone or with fatty-acylated alpha subunits. These results suggest that the structural difference between lipids that modify proteins is one basis for the selectivity of protein targeting to rafts. (+info)
Trans interactions between galactosylceramide and cerebroside sulfate across apposed bilayers.
The two glycosphingolipids galactosylceramide (GalC) and its sulfated form, cerebroside sulfate (CBS), are present at high concentrations in the multilayered myelin sheath and are involved in carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between the lipid headgroups. In order to study the structure of the complex of these two glycolipids by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, GalC dispersions were combined with CBS dispersions in the presence and absence of Ca(2+). The FTIR spectra indicated that a strong interaction occurred between these glycolipids even in the absence of Ca(2+). The interaction resulted in dehydration of the sulfate, changes in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions of the sugar and other oxygens, decreased intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the amide C==O of GalC and dehydration of the amide region of one or both of the lipids in the mixture, and disordering of the hydrocarbon chains of both lipids. The spectra also show that Ca(2+) interacts with the sulfate of CBS. Although they do not reveal which other groups of CBS and GalC interact with Ca(2+) or which groups participate in the interaction between the two lipids, they do show that the sulfate is not directly involved in interaction with GalC, since it can still bind to Ca(2+) in the mixture. The interaction between these two lipids could be either a lateral cis interaction in the same bilayer or a trans interaction between apposed bilayers. The type of interaction between the lipids, cis or trans, was investigated using fluorescent and spin-label probes and anti-glycolipid antibodies. The results confirmed a strong interaction between the GalC and the CBS microstructures. They suggested further that this interaction caused the CBS microstructures to be disrupted so that CBS formed a single bilayer around the GalC multilayered microstructures, thus sequestering GalC from the external aqueous phase. Thus the CBS and GalC interacted via a trans interaction across apposed bilayers, which resulted in dehydration of the headgroup and interface region of both lipid bilayers. The strong interaction between these lipids may be involved in stabilization of the myelin sheath. (+info)
Dimorphic expression of cerebrosides in the mycopathogen Sporothrix schenckii.
Major neutral glycosphingolipid components were extracted from Sporothrix schenckii, a dimorphic fungus exhibiting a hyphal saprophytic phase and a yeast parasitic phase responsible for chronic mycotic infections in mammalian hosts. These components, one from the mycelial form and two from the yeast form, were purified and their structures were elucidated by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and tandem ESI-MS/MS. All three were characterized as cerebrosides (monohexosylceramides) containing (4E, 8E)-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the long-chain base attached to N-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoate and N-2'-hydroxy-(E)-Delta(3)-octadecenoate as the fatty acyl components. However, while the mycelial form expressed only beta-glucopyranosylceramide, the yeast form expressed both beta-gluco- and beta-galactopyranosylceramides in approximately equal amounts. In addition, while the glucosylceramides of both mycelial and yeast forms had similar proportions of saturated and (E)-Delta(3) unsaturated 2-hydroxy fatty acid, the galactocerebroside of the yeast form had significantly higher levels of (E)-Delta(3) unsaturation. The differences in cerebroside hexose structure represent a novel type of glycosphingolipid dimorphism not previously reported in fungi. Possible implications of these findings with respect to regulation of morphological transitions in S. schenckii and other dimorphic fungi are discussed. (+info)
Exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: the enzyme responsible for degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide.
The development of exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of oleamide (an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid), and anandamide (an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors) is detailed. The inhibitors may serve as useful tools to clarify the role of endogenous oleamide and anandamide and may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of sleep disorders or pain. The combination of several features-an optimal C12-C8 chain length, pi-unsaturation introduction at the corresponding arachidonoyl Delta(8,9)/Delta(11,12) and oleoyl Delta(9,10) location, and an alpha-keto N4 oxazolopyridine with incorporation of a second weakly basic nitrogen provided FAAH inhibitors with K(i)s that drop below 200 pM and are 10(2)-10(3) times more potent than the corresponding trifluoromethyl ketones. (+info)