Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtine region of Kosova. (65/150)

Clinical bluetongue (BT) caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV-9) was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtine to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotted against temperature data. Samples contained Obsoletus and Pulicaris Complexes but not C. imicola. The first specimens of Culicoides were collected in April and they continued to be detected until November. Generally, Obsoletus Complex was present in the largest numbers, with the exception of the middle of the year when the Pulicaris Complex predominated. The number of Culicoides trapped was directly linked to temperature (p<0.05) and records indicated that Culicoides activity ceased when minimum temperatures fell below 0 degrees C; activity recommenced when minimum temperatures rose to approximately 6 degrees C. These results indicate that there was a lack of a vector for BTV during winter for a period lasting approximately five months.  (+info)

A broad assessment of factors determining Culicoides imicola abundance: modelling the present and forecasting its future in climate change scenarios. (66/150)

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Description of Culicoides lisicarruni (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a new species from Cundinamarca, Colombia. (67/150)

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Possible windborne spread of bluetongue to Portugal, June-July 1956. (68/150)

The possible sources for the epidemic of bluetongue in Portugal at the beginning of July 1956 were examined. Introduction through authorized importation of domestic or wild ruminants was not feasible, since no cattle, sheep or goats were imported and the wild ruminants were confined to Lisbon Zoo, which was too far from the initial outbreaks. Weather maps were examined to see if the wind could have carried infected Culicoides midges from North Africa. On 21 June 1956 infected midges in Morocco could have been taken offshore by southeast winds and then carried by south winds unusual at that time of year to the south coast of Portugal. The 200-300 km sea crossing would have taken some 10 h and been by day when air temperatures near the sea surface were about 18-20 C. Bluetongue had not been reported at that time in Moroccco, and the possibility of the presence of the virus in moroccan animals without clinical signs is discussed.  (+info)

Entomopathogenic fungus as a biological control for an important vector of livestock disease: the Culicoides biting midge. (69/150)

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Quantitative assessment of the probability of bluetongue virus overwintering by horizontal transmission: application to Germany. (70/150)

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Two new biting midges from Para, Brazil (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (71/150)

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Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua local government area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns. (72/150)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance, circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector. METHODS: Thick smear of 50 microl finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in a cross-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of the vector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006. RESULTS: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstans microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those with positive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females). The differences in geometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance; p <0.05), being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml). A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caught from September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian biting activity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per person per month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382 bites per person per year. CONCLUSION: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring the need for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges in Emohua.  (+info)