(1/232) Development of resistance during antimicrobial therapy caused by insertion sequence interruption of porin genes.
We have demonstrated by using an in vitro approach that interruption of the OmpK36 porin gene by insertion sequences (ISs) is a common type of mutation that causes loss of porin expression and increased resistance to cefoxitin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This mechanism also operates in vivo: of 13 porin-deficient cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 4 presented ISs in their ompK36 gene. (+info)
(2/232) Inducing effect of diamines on transcription of the cephamycin C genes from the lat and pcbAB promoters in Nocardia lactamdurans.
The diamines putrescine, cadaverine, and diaminopropane stimulate cephamycin biosynthesis in Nocardia lactamdurans, in shake flasks and fermentors, without altering cell growth. Intracellular levels of the P7 protein (a component of the methoxylation system involved in cephamycin biosynthesis) were increased by diaminopropane, as shown by immunoblotting studies. Lysine-6-aminotransferase and piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities involved in biosynthesis of the alpha-aminoadipic acid precursor were also greatly stimulated. The diamine stimulatory effect is exerted at the transcriptional level, as shown by low-resolution S1 protection studies. The transcript corresponding to the pcbAB gene and to a lesser extent also the lat transcript were significantly increased in diaminopropane-supplemented cultures, whereas transcription from the cefD promoter was not affected. Coupling of the lat and pcbAB promoters to the reporter xylE gene showed that expression from the lat and pcbAB promoters was increased by addition of diaminopropane in Streptomyces lividans. Intracellular accumulation of diamines in Nocardia may be a signal to trigger antibiotic production. (+info)
(3/232) Deletion of the pyc gene blocks clavulanic acid biosynthesis except in glycerol-containing medium: evidence for two different genes in formation of the C3 unit.
The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid is formed by condensation of a pyruvate-derived C3 unit with a molecule of arginine. A gene (pyc, for pyruvate converting) located upstream of the bls gene in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a 582-amino-acid protein with domains recognizing pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate that shows 29.9% identity to acetohydroxyacid synthases. Amplification of the pyc gene resulted in an earlier onset and higher production of clavulanic acid. Replacement of the pyc gene with the aph gene did not cause isoleucine-valine auxotrophy in the mutant. The pyc replacement mutant did not produce clavulanic acid in starch-asparagine (SA) or in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) complex medium, suggesting that the pyc gene product is involved in the conversion of pyruvate into the C3 unit of clavulanic acid. However, the beta-lactamase inhibitor was still formed at the same level as in the wild-type strain in defined medium containing D-glycerol, glutamic acid, and proline (GSPG medium) as confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and paper chromatography. The production of clavulanic acid by the replacement mutant was dependent on addition of glycerol to the medium, and glycerol-free GSPG medium did not support clavulanic acid biosynthesis, suggesting that an alternative gene product catalyzes the incorporation of glycerol into clavulanic acid in the absence of the Pyc protein. The pyc replacement mutant overproduces cephamycin. (+info)
(4/232) Early cephamycin biosynthetic genes are expressed from a polycistronic transcript in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
A polycistronic transcript that is initiated at the lat promoter has been implicated in the expression of the genes involved in early steps of cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus. pcbC is also expressed as a monocistronic transcript from its own promoter. However, an alternative interpretation involving expression via three separate yet interdependent transcripts has also been proposed. To distinguish between these possibilities, mutants lacking the lat promoter and containing a transcription terminator within the lat gene (Deltalat::tsr/term mutants) were created. This mutation eliminated the production of lysine-epsilon-aminotransferase (the lat gene product) but also affected the expression of downstream genes, indicating an operon arrangement. Production of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) (the pcbAB gene product) was eliminated in Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, while production of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) (the pcbC gene product) was greatly reduced. The provision of alpha-aminoadipate to the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, either via exogenous feeding or via lat gene complementation, did not restore production of ACVS or IPNS. Analysis of RNA isolated from the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants confirmed that the polycistronic transcript was absent but also indicated that monocistronic pcbC transcript levels were greatly decreased. In contrast, Deltalat mutants created by in-frame internal deletion of lat maintained the polycistronic transcript and allowed production of wild-type levels of both ACVS and IPNS. (+info)
(5/232) Enzymes catalyzing the early steps of clavulanic acid biosynthesis are encoded by two sets of paralogous genes in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
Genes encoding the proteins required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis and for cephamycin biosynthesis are grouped into a "supercluster" in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) associated with clavulanic acid biosynthesis were located in a 15-kb segment of the supercluster, including six ORFs encoding known biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins, two ORFs that have been reported previously but whose involvement in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unclear, and one ORF not previously reported. Evidence for the involvement of these ORFs in clavulanic acid production was obtained by generating mutants and showing that all were defective for clavulanic acid production when grown on starch asparagine medium. However, when five of the nine mutants, including mutants defective in known clavulanic acid biosynthetic enzymes, were grown in a soy-based medium, clavulanic acid-producing ability was restored. This ability to produce clavulanic acid when seemingly essential biosynthetic enzymes have been mutated suggests that paralogous genes encoding functionally equivalent proteins exist for each of the five genes but that these paralogues are expressed only in the soy-based medium. The five genes that have paralogues encode proteins involved in the early steps of the pathway common to the biosynthesis of both clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites produced by this organism. No evidence was seen for paralogues of the four remaining genes involved in late, clavulanic acid-specific steps in the pathway. (+info)
(6/232) Heterogeneous distribution of lysine 6-aminotransferase during cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus demonstrated using green fluorescent protein as a reporter.
The cellular distribution of the cephamycin biosynthetic enzyme lysine 6-aminotransferase (LAT) has been studied in Streptomyces clavuligerus hyphae by confocal microscopy using the S65T mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. LAT mediates the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite cephamycin C by S. clavuligerus. The enzymic activity of LAT varies with time during the growth of S. clavuligerus in liquid medium. To investigate if this temporal variation occurs uniformly amongst all hyphae, S. clavuligerus was transformed with a plasmid containing the LAT-encoding gene translationally fused to the GFP-encoding gene. The LAT-GFP fusion product displayed fluorescence spectral characteristics of GFP, and showed similar temporal characteristics of LAT activity compared to the wild-type strain of S. clavuligerus. The transformed strain exhibited a heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in mycelia grown in liquid cultures. This distribution varied significantly as the batch progressed: only a fraction of the mycelia fluoresced in the early growth phase, whereas nearly all hyphae fluoresced by the late growth phase. Thereafter, a non-uniform distribution of fluorescence was again observed in the declining growth phase. A large fraction of the non-fluorescent cells in the declining growth phase were found to be non-viable. Observations of S. clavuligerus colonies grown on solid agar also showed variation of LAT-GFP expression at different stages of growth. These observations in the solid phase can be explained in terms of nutrient deprivation and signalling molecules. The results suggest that physiological differentiation of S. clavuligerus mycelia leading to cephamycin C biosynthesis is both temporally and spatially distributed. The findings also revealed that the observed heterogeneity was independent of the position of individual cell compartments within the hypha. The potential of GFP as a reporter for the quantitative study of cephamycin biosynthesis at the cellular level has also been demonstrated. (+info)
(7/232) Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin in the treatment of cutaneous and other soft-tissue abscesses in patients with or without histories of injection drug abuse.
A randomized, double-blind trial compared the clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) and cefoxitin (2 g) administered intravenously every 6 h to patients with (n=49) or without (n=47) histories of injection drug abuse who presented with cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections. Cure or improvement occurred in 89.8% of ampicillin/sulbactam-treated patients, compared with 93.6% of cefoxitin-treated patients. The median time to resolution of all symptoms was 10.5 days with ampicillin/sulbactam treatment and 15.5 days with cefoxitin treatment. Mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection was encountered frequently in both treatment groups. A significantly higher percentage of Streptococcus species was found in the major abscesses of the patients with histories of injection drug abuse, compared with those without such histories (37% vs. 19%, respectively; P=.0009). Overall, ampicillin/sulbactam eradicated pathogens from the major abscesses in 100% of patients, whereas the eradication rate with cefoxitin was 97.9%. The 2 drugs were well tolerated. Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin were equally effective for the empirical treatment of cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections in injection drug abusers and patients who did not inject drugs. (+info)
(8/232) Nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal ampC gene of Enterobacter aerogenes.
The AmpC beta-lactamase gene and a small portion of the regulatory ampR sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes 97B were cloned and sequenced. The beta-lactamase had an isoelectric point of 8 and conferred cephalosporin and cephamycin resistance on the host. The sequence of the cloned gene is most closely related to those of the ampC genes of E. cloacae and C. freundii. (+info)