(1/448) Differential mortality in New York City (1988-1992). Part One: excess mortality among non-Hispanic blacks.
To determine the distribution of mortality for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in New York City, death certificates issued in New York City during 1988 through 1992, and the relevant 1990 US census data for New York City, have been examined. Age-adjusted death rates for blacks and whites by gender and cause of death were computed based on the US population in 1940. Also, standard mortality ratios and excess mortality were calculated using the New York City mortality rate as reference. The results showed that New York City blacks had higher age-adjusted death rates than whites regardless of cause, including stroke, AIDS, homicide, and diabetes. The rate for New York City blacks was also higher than the US total for both genders. Using New York City mortality rates as a reference, more than 80% of excess deaths in blacks occurred before age 65. Injury/poisoning was the leading cause of excess death (20.1%) in black males, while in black females, cardiovascular disease was the largest single cause of excess deaths (24.8%). The higher death rates, especially premature death, of blacks in New York City are related to conditions such as violence, substance abuse, and AIDS, for which prevention rather than medical care is the more likely solution, as well as to cardiovascular diseases, where both prevention through behavioral change, and health and medical care, can influence outcome. (+info)
(2/448) Differential mortality in New York City (1988-1992). Part Two: excess mortality in the south Bronx.
To display the extent of variations in mortality according to geographic regions in New York City, we have compared mortality in New York City as a whole with that of the South Bronx. Mortality records for 1988 to 1992 and 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. The 471,000 residents of the South Bronx were younger, less educated, and more likely to lack health insurance than other New Yorkers. Using age- and gender-stratified populations and mortality in New York City as standards, age-adjusted death rates and excess mortality in the South Bronx were determined. All-cause mortality in the South Bronx was 26% higher than the city as a whole. Mortality for AIDS, injury and poisoning, drug and alcohol abuse, and cardiovascular diseases were 50% to 100% higher in the South Bronx than in New York City; years of potential life lost before age 65 in the South Bronx were 41.6% and 44.2% higher for men and women, respectively, than in New York City; AIDS accounted for the largest single share of excess premature deaths (21.8%). In summary, inequalities in health status, reflected by higher mortality rates in the South Bronx, are consistent with, and perhaps caused by, lower socioeconomic status and deficient medical care among residents of this inner-city community. (+info)
(3/448) The census-based, impact-oriented approach: its effectiveness in promoting child health in Bolivia.
This paper describes the effectiveness for child health of a primary health care approach developed in Bolivia by Andean Rural Health Care and its colleagues, the census-based, impact-oriented (CBIO) approach. Here, we describe selected achievements, including child survival service coverage, mortality impact, and the level of resources required to attain these results. As a result of first identifying the entire programme population through visits at least biannually to all homes and then targeting selected high-impact services to those at highest risk of death, the mortality levels of children under five years of age in the established programme areas was one-third to one-half of mortality levels in comparison areas. Card-documented coverage for the complete series of all the standard six childhood immunizations among children 12-23 months of age was 78%, and card-documented coverage for three nutritional monitorings during the previous 12 months among the same group of children was 80%. Coverage rates in comparison areas for similar services was less than 21%. The local annual recurring cost of this approach was US $8.57 for each person (of all ages) in the programme population. This cost includes the provision of primary care services for all age groups as well as targeted child survival services. This cost is well within the affordable range for many, if not most, developing countries. Manpower costs for field staff in Bolivia are relatively high, so in countries with lower salary scales, the overall recurring cost could be substantially less. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the CBIO approach and found it to be worthy of replication, particularly if stronger community involvement and greater reliance on volunteer or minimally paid staff could be attained. The results of this approach are sufficiently promising to merit implementation and evaluation in other sites, including sites beyond Bolivia. (+info)
(4/448) Counting the uninsured using state-level hospitalization data.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of using state-level data on uninsured hospitalizations to estimate the uninsured population. METHODS: The authors used 1992-1996 data on hospitalizations of newborns and of appendectomy and heart attack patients in Florida to estimate the number of people in the state without health insurance coverage. These conditions were selected because they usually require hospitalization and they are common across demographic categories. RESULTS: Adjusted for the gender and ethnic composition of the population, the percentages of uninsured hospitalizations for appendectomies and heart attacks produced estimates of the state's uninsured population 1.6 percentage points lower than those reported for 1996 in the US Census March Current Population Survey. CONCLUSION: Data reported by hospitals to state agencies can be used to monitor trends in health insurance coverage and provides an alternative data source for a state-level analysis of the uninsured population. (+info)
(5/448) Validity of reported age and centenarian prevalence in New England.
INTRODUCTION: the age reported by or on behalf of centenarians may be suspect unless proven correct. We report the validity of age reports in a population-based sample of centenarians living in New England and the prevalence of centenarians in an area within the North Eastern USA. METHODS: cohort study. All centenarians in a population-based sample detected by local censuses. Ages were confirmed by birth certificate. Type of residence and whether the subject was living independently were also recorded. RESULTS: from a population of about 450,000 people, 289 potential centenarians were reported by the censuses of the eight towns participating in the study. Of these, 186 (64%) had died at the time centenarian prevalence was determined. Of the 80 still alive, 13 (16%) had incorrect birth years recorded by the censuses. The specificity of the censuses for stating the number of centenarians alive and living in the sample was 28-31%. Using additional sources, only four more centenarians were located, indicating that the sensitivity of the censuses approached 100%. We had an 83% success rate in obtaining proof of age in those families we interviewed. In all instances, age and birth order of children were an important source of corroborative evidence and in no case did we detect inconsistencies with the families' reported ages of the centenarian subjects. Therefore, there were at least 46 centenarians or approximately 1 centenarian per 10,000 people. CONCLUSIONS: age validation can be performed for most centenarians in the North Eastern USA. Self or family reports of those between the ages of 100 and 107 years were dependable. (+info)
(6/448) Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980-1990.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA. DESIGN: Using standard demographic techniques, death certificate and census data were analysed to make sex specific population level estimates of 1980 and 1990 death rates for residents of selected areas of concentrated poverty. For comparison, data for whites and blacks nationwide were analysed. SETTING: African American communities in Harlem, Central City Detroit, Chicago's south side, the Louisiana Delta, the Black Belt region of Alabama, and Eastern North Carolina. Non-Hispanic white communities in Cleveland, Detroit, Appalachian Kentucky, South Central Louisiana, Northeastern Alabama, and Western North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: All black residents or all white residents of each specific community and in the nation, 1979-1981 and 1989-1991. MAIN RESULTS: Substantial variability exists in levels, trends, and causes of excess mortality in poor populations across localities. African American residents of urban/northern communities suffer extremely high and growing rates of excess mortality. Rural residents exhibit an important mortality advantage that widens over the decade. Homicide deaths contribute little to the rise in excess mortality, nor do AIDS deaths contribute outside of specific localities. Deaths attributable to circulatory disease are the leading cause of excess mortality in most locations. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences exist among persistently impoverished populations in the degree to which their poverty translates into excess mortality. Social epidemiological inquiry and health promotion initiatives should be attentive to local conditions. The severely disadvantageous mortality profiles experienced by urban African Americans relative to the rural poor and to national averages call for understanding. (+info)
(7/448) Identifying disability: comparing house-to-house survey and rapid rural appraisal.
This study compared house-to-house survey and rapid rural appraisal as methods used to identify people with disabilities in a sample rural population in South India. The research showed that by using these methods, two distinctly different populations were identified. The factors that influenced the identification processes were: local perceptions and definitions of disability; social dynamics, particularly those of gender and age; relationships within the rapid rural appraisal groups and between the health auxiliary and the respondents in the house-to-house survey; and the type of disability and the associated social implications and stigma of that disability. While a few more people were identified through the house-to-house survey, the rapid rural appraisal was a better approach for identifying disability in the community because of the greater community participation. The researchers believe that this community participation provided a greater understanding of the complex contextual dynamics influencing the identification of disability, thereby increasing the validity of the study findings. Another advantage of the rapid rural appraisal was the methodological and analytical simplicity. Both methods, however, failed to identify some individuals with disabilities who were later identified on the follow-up verification visits. Taking into account the factors discussed above, the researchers conclude that no single method could be used to comprehensively identify people with disability in a community. They suggest that a judicious combination of methods which takes into account local perceptions and priorities, includes more specific screening techniques, and facilitates informed voluntary referrals, would be the most effective approach. (+info)
(8/448) Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: a summary of current research, 1999.
OBJECTIVES: This report provides a summary of current knowledge and research on the quality and reliability of death rates by race and Hispanic origin in official mortality statistics of the United States produced by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). It also provides a quantitative assessment of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. It identifies areas for targeted research. METHODS: Death rates are based on information on deaths (numerators of the rates) from death certificates filed in the states and compiled into a national database by NCHS, and on population data (denominators) from the Census Bureau. Selected studies of race/Hispanic-origin misclassification and under coverage are summarized on deaths and population. Estimates are made of the separate and the joint bias on death rates by race and Hispanic origin from the two sources. Simplifying assumptions are made about the stability of the biases over time and among age groups. Original results are presented using an expanded and updated database from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. RESULTS: While biases in the numerator and denominator tend to offset each other somewhat, death rates for all groups show net effects of race misclassification and under coverage. For the white population and the black population, published death rates are overstated in official publications by an estimated 1.0 percent and 5.0 percent, respectively, resulting principally from undercounts of these population groups in the census. Death rates for the other minority groups are understated in official publications approximately as follows: American Indians, 21 percent; Asian or Pacific Islanders, 11 percent; and Hispanics, 2 percent. These estimates do not take into account differential misreporting of age among the race/ethnic groups. (+info)