(1/2701) Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression.

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cell-size checkpoints help to coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression, so that proliferating eukaryotic cells maintain their size. There is strong evidence for such size checkpoints in yeasts, which maintain a constant cell-size distribution as they proliferate, even though large yeast cells grow faster than small yeast cells. Moreover, when yeast cells are shifted to better or worse nutrient conditions, they alter their size threshold within one cell cycle. Populations of mammalian cells can also maintain a constant size distribution as they proliferate, but it is not known whether this depends on cell-size checkpoints. RESULTS: We show that proliferating rat Schwann cells do not require a cell-size checkpoint to maintain a constant cell-size distribution, as, unlike yeasts, large and small Schwann cells grow at the same rate, which depends on the concentration of extracellular growth factors. In addition, when shifted from serum-free to serum-containing medium, Schwann cells take many divisions to increase their size to that appropriate to the new condition, suggesting that they do not have cell-size checkpoints similar to those in yeasts. CONCLUSIONS: Proliferating Schwann cells and yeast cells seem to use different mechanisms to coordinate their growth with cell-cycle progression. Whereas yeast cells use cell-size checkpoints, Schwann cells apparently do not. It seems likely that many mammalian cells resemble Schwann cells in this respect.  (+info)

(2/2701) At the crossroads: AMP-activated kinase and the LKB1 tumor suppressor link cell proliferation to metabolic regulation.

The tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 has been identified as a physiologic activator of the key metabolic regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, establishing a possible molecular link between the regulation of metabolism and cell proliferation.  (+info)

(3/2701) Phospholipase C delta-4 overexpression upregulates ErbB1/2 expression, Erk signaling pathway, and proliferation in MCF-7 cells.

BACKGROUND: The expression of the rodent phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta-4 (PLCdelta4) has been found to be elevated upon mitogenic stimulation and expression analysis have linked the upregulation of PLCdelta4 expression with rapid proliferation in certain rat transformed cell lines. The human homologue of PLCdelta4 has not been extensively characterized. Accordingly, we investigate the effects of overexpression of human PLCdelta4 on cell signaling and proliferation in this study. RESULTS: The cDNA for human PLCdelta4 has been isolated and expressed ectopically in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of PLCdelta4 selectively activates protein kinase C-phi and upregulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors EGFR/erbB1 and HER2/erbB2, leading to constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells stably expressing PLCdelta4 demonstrates several phenotypes of transformation, such as rapid proliferation in low serum, formation of colonies in soft agar, and capacity to form densely packed spheroids in low-attachment plates. The growth signaling responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible by siRNA. CONCLUSION: Overexpression or dysregulated expression of PLCdelta4 may initiate oncogenesis in certain tissues through upregulation of ErbB expression and activation of ERK pathway. Since the growth responses induced by PLCdelta4 are not reversible, PLCdelta4 itself is not a suitable drug target, but enzymes in pathways activated by PLCdelta4 are potential therapeutic targets for oncogenic intervention.  (+info)

(4/2701) Impairment of B cell receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and growth inhibition in CD72-deficient BAL-17 cells.

CD72 is a 45 kDa B cell-specific type II transmembrane protein of the C-type lectin superfamily. It was originally defined as a receptor-like molecule that regulates B cell activation and differentiation; however, its precise function remains unclear since more recent functional analyses, including a gene targeting study, suggest that CD72 may serve as a negative or a positive regulator of B cell signaling. In the present study, we analyzed the cell-autonomous function of CD72 in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using CD72-deficient cells generated from mature BAL-17 cells. We found that BCR-mediated phosphorylation of CD19, Btk, Vav and phospholipase Cgamma2 and association of CD19 with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase were impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Inositol trisphosphate synthesis was normally induced initially but ablated at 1 min of stimulation in CD72-deficient cells. In the event, Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores remained intact, though influx of extracellular Ca(2+) was severely impaired in CD72-deficient cells. Furthermore, BCR-evoked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and growth inhibition in BAL-17 cells were blocked in the absence of CD72. Significantly, these effects were largely reversed by re-expression of CD72. Thus, CD72 appears to exert a positive effect on BCR signaling pathways leading to Ca(2+) influx and MAPK activation, which in turn may determine the fate of BAL-17 cells.  (+info)

(5/2701) Regulation of mammalian cell growth and death by bacterial redox proteins: relevance to ecology and cancer therapy.

Recent evidence indicates that bacterial redox proteins such as cupredoxins and cytochromes, that are normally involved in electron transfer during respiration, can enter mammalian cells and induce either apoptosis or inhibition of cell cycle progression. Such proteins have also been shown to demonstrate a good deal of specificity for entry and induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, allowing both in vitro cell death and in vivo inhibition of cancer progression. An alteration in the hydrophobicity of the bacterial redox proteins can lead to a switch from apoptosis to growth arrest and vice versa through modulation of the intracellular levels of tumor suppressors. The preferential entry and cytotoxicity of these redox proteins in cancer cells raises interesting questions about the presence of other bacterial proteins that may affect cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase, thereby potentially arresting cancer growth. The intracellular localization of the bacterial redox proteins in nonpathogenic soil bacteria similarly raises questions about their possible role in allowing various nonpathogenic soil bacteria to defend themselves from environmental predators by inducing cytotoxicity when engulfed in large numbers. A new role of the redox proteins in soil bacteria in maintaining an ecological balance among the predators and preys is proposed.  (+info)

(6/2701) Lysophosphatidic acid attenuates the cytotoxic effects and degree of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation induced by 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in neuroblastoma cells.

PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to 15dPGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostglandin J2). 15dPGJ2, in vitro, halts neuroblastoma cell growth, but reported mechanisms vary. Here we evaluated the modulatory effects of endogenous serum lipid mitogens upon the extent of 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition and on the precise cellular responses of neuroblastoma cells to PPARgamma activation. We show that 15dPGJ2 specifically inhibited cell growth in both complete and delipidated media. 15dPGJ2-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased cell viability, although the effect was far more marked in delipidated medium than in complete medium. Incubation with 15dPGJ2 in complete medium resulted in cytoplasmic changes characteristic of type II programmed cell death (autophagy), while prior serum lipid removal resulted in cell death via an apoptotic mechanism. These distinct, serum lipid-dependent cellular responses to 15dPGJ2 were accompanied by increases in the expression of a reporter gene construct containing a PPAR response element of 2.3-fold in complete medium, but of 4.8-fold in delipidated medium. Restoration of the serum lysolipid LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) to cells in delipidated medium reduced 15dPGJ2-mediated PPARgamma activation, growth inhibition and cell death; following addition of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate), decreases were apparent but more marginal. Further, while the effects of LPA in delipidated medium were mediated through a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, those of S1P did not involve the MAPK component. These data suggest that the serum lysolipid LPA modulates the degree of PPARgamma activation and the precise cellular response to 15dPGJ2 via activation of a G(i)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/MAPK pathway.  (+info)

(7/2701) Mutation in mitochondrial complex I ND6 subunit is associated with defective response to hypoxia in human glioma cells.

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-tolerant human glioma cells reduce oxygen consumption rate in response to oxygen deficit, a defense mechanism that contributes to survival under moderately hypoxic conditions. In contrast, hypoxia-sensitive cells lack this ability. As it has been previously shown that hypoxia-tolerant (M006x, M006xLo, M059K) and -sensitive (M010b) glioma cells express differences in mitochondrial function, we investigated whether mitochondrial DNA-encoded mutations are associated with differences in the initial response to oxygen deficit. RESULTS: The mitochondrial genome was sequenced and 23 mtDNA alterations were identified, one of which was an unreported mutation (T-C transition in base pair 14634) in the hypoxia-sensitive cell line, M010b, that resulted in a single amino acid change in the gene encoding the ND6 subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). The T14634C mutation did not abrogate ND6 protein expression, however, M010b cells were more resistant to rotenone, an agent used to screen for Complex I mutations, and adriamycin, an agent activated by redox cycling. The specific function of mtDNA-encoded, membrane-embedded Complex I ND subunits is not known at present. Current models suggest that the transmembrane arm of Complex I may serve as a conformationally driven proton channel. As cellular respiration is regulated, in part, by proton flux, we used homology-based modeling and computational molecular biology to predict the 3D structure of the wild type and mutated ND6 proteins. These models predict that the T14634C mutation alters the structure and orientation of the trans-membrane helices of the ND6 protein. CONCLUSION: Complex I ND subunits are mutational hot spots in tumor mtDNA. Genetic changes that alter Complex I structure and function may alter a cell's ability to respond to oxygen deficit and consolidate hypoxia rescue mechanisms, and may contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that require redox cycling for activation.  (+info)

(8/2701) Microarray analysis reveals genetic pathways modulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia.

BACKGROUND: Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (ZARNESTRA, R115777) has recently demonstrated clinical responses in adults with refractory and relapsed acute leukemias. This study was conducted to identify genetic markers and pathways that are regulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Tipifarnib-mediated gene expression changes in 3 AML cell lines and bone marrow samples from two patients with AML were analyzed on a cDNA microarray containing approximately 7000 human genes. Pathways associated with these expression changes were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. RESULTS: The expression analysis identified a common set of genes that were regulated by tipifarnib in three leukemic cell lines and in leukemic blast cells isolated from two patients who had been treated with tipifarnib. Association of modulated genes with biological functional groups identified several pathways affected by tipifarnib including cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, immunity, and apoptosis. Gene expression changes were verified in a subset of genes using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, regulation of apoptotic genes was found to correlate with increased Annexin V staining in the THP-1 cell line but not in the HL-60 cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic networks derived from these studies illuminate some of the biological pathways affected by FTI treatment while providing a proof of principle for identifying candidate genes that might be used as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity.  (+info)