Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis: further studies of their relationship.
Using diagnostic criteria which are currently accepted as most reliable we have found that 19% (9/47) of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) have no evidence of coeliac disease. The incidence of HL-A8 in the DH patients was 78%, which is considerably greater than that in healthy controls and no different from that reported in coeliac disease. Furthermore, the incidence of HL-A8 was just as much increased in those DH patients without evidence of coeliac disease suggesting that HL-A8 is associated with DH per se--that is, regardless of its association with coeliac disease. (+info)
Coeliac disease detected by screening is not silent--simply unrecognized.
Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and may be overlooked as a diagnosis. There is some evidence that untreated CD is associated with a doubling of mortality, largely due to an increase in the incidence of malignancy and small intestinal lymphoma, which is decreased by a strict gluten-free diet. We studied the clinical features of screening-detected coeliacs compared to age- and sex-matched controls as a 3-year follow-up to a population screening survey, and followed-up subjects who had had CD-associated serology 11 years previously to determine whether they have CD or an increased mortality rate compared to the general population. Samples of the general population (MONICA 1991 and 1983) were screened for CD-associated serology and followed-up after 3 and 11 years, respectively, and assessed by a clinical questionnaire, screening blood tests and jejunal biopsy. Mortality rates for 'all deaths' and 'cancer deaths' were compared in subjects with positive serology in 1983 with reference to the general population. Thirteen coeliacs were diagnosed by villous atrophy following screening, compared to two patients with clinically detected CD, giving a prevalence of 1:122. Clinical features or laboratory parameters were not indicative of CD compared to controls. Subjects with positive serology followed up after 11 years did not have an excess mortality for either cancer deaths or all causes of death. Screening-detected CD is rarely silent and may be associated with significant symptoms and morbidity. In this limited study with small numbers, there does not appear to be an increased mortality from screening-detected CD, although the follow-up may be too short to detect any difference. (+info)
The widening spectrum of celiac disease.
Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten that results in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Celiac disease is associated with both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes and with other immune disorders, notably juvenile diabetes and thyroid disease. The classic sprue syndrome of steatorrhea and malnutrition coupled with multiple deficiency states may be less common than more subtle and often monosymptomatic presentations of the disease. Diverse problems such as dental anomalies, short stature, osteopenic bone disease, lactose intolerance, infertility, and nonspecific abdominal pain among many others may be the only manifestations of celiac disease. The rate at which celiac disease is diagnosed depends on the level of suspicion for the disease. Although diagnosis relies on intestinal biopsy findings, serologic tests are useful as screening tools and as an adjunct to diagnosis. The treatment of celiac disease is lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Gluten-free diets are now readily achievable with appropriate professional instruction and community support. Both benign and malignant complications of celiac disease occur but these can often be avoided by early diagnosis and compliance with a gluten-free diet. (+info)
Urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium in children with intestinal disorders. Potential cause of renal calculi.
24-hour urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium have been determined in a total of 62 children aged 3 months to 17 years who fell into the following groups: (i) 16 normal controls, (ii) 3 with primary hyperoxaluria, (iii) 9 with small and/or large intestinal resections, (iv) 9 with untreated coeliac disease, (v) 5 with pancreatic dysfunction, and (vi) a miscellaneous group of 20 children with a variety of intestinal disorders. Taken as a whole, 58% of patients with intestinal disorders had hyperoxaluria, and of these 7% had urinary outputs of oxalate which fell within the range seen in primary hyperoxaluria. The proportion of children with hyperoxaluria in the different diagnostic groups was as follows: intestinal resections (78%), coeliac disease (67%), pancreatic dysfunction (80%), and miscellaneous (45%). 35% of the patients with hyperoxaluria had hypercalciuria, whereas magnesium excretion was normal in all subjects studied. In 2 patients treatment of the underlying condition was accompanied by a return of oxalate excretion to normal. These results indicate that hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria are common in children with a variety of intestinal disorders, and that such children may be at risk of developing renal calculi without early diagnosis and treatment. (+info)
Management of coeliac disease: a changing diagnostic approach but what value in follow up?
OBJECTIVE: To assess the management of patients with coeliac disease in relation to a change in diagnostic method from jejunal suction biopsy to endoscopic biopsy. DESIGN: 16 item questionnaire survey of consultant members of the British Society of Gastroenterology. SUBJECTS: 359 consultant physician and gastroenterologist members of the society. MAIN MEASURES: Type of routine biopsy; repeat biopsy after gluten withdrawal; gluten rechallenge; follow up measurements; screening for malignancy; and methods of follow up, including special clinics. RESULTS: 270(70%) members replied; 216(80%) diagnosed coeliac disease routinely by endoscopic duodenal biopsy, 30(11%) by jejunal capsule biopsy, and the remainder by either method. Only 156(58%) repeated the biopsy after gluten withdrawal, though more did so for duodenal than jejunal biopsies (134/216, 62% v 13/30, 43%; p < 0.02). Follow up biopsies featured more duodenal than jejunal biopsies (133/156, 82% v 23/156, 15%; p < 0.02). Regular follow up included assessments of weight (259, 96%) and full blood count (238, 88%) but limited assessment of serum B-12 and folate (120, 44%) and calcium (105, 39%) concentrations. Routine screening for malignancy is not performed, and there are few specialist clinics. 171(63%) respondents thought that patients should be followed up by a hospital specialist and 58(21%) by family doctors. CONCLUSIONS: The practice of diagnosing coeliac disease varies appreciably from that in many standard texts. Many patients could be effectively cared for by their family doctor. IMPLICATIONS: The British Society of Gastroenterology should support such management by family doctors by providing clear guidelines for them. (+info)
Patchiness and duodenal-jejunal variation of the mucosal abnormality in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.
The incidence and degree of patchiness of mucosal abnormality in both coeliac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is documented. As judged by both stereomicroscopy and subjective histology, patchiness occurred frequently in both CDand DH patients. In most cases the difference of abnormality was of only one grade, but in approximately 25% as assessed by stereomicroscopy and 10% as assessed by histology the difference was of two or more grades. In control subjects with normal small bowel mucosa the variation of the mucosal appearance between the duodenum and proximal jejunum was studied. Contrary to popular belief, no significant difference of villous and crypt measurements or of apparent villous "bridging" and "branching" between these two sites was found, if only well-orientated sections were studied. The stereomicroscopic appearances were also similar at these two sites, although villi tended to be broader in the duodenal biopsies. The duodenal-jejunal variation was also studied in CD and DH patients and although by both stereomicroscopy and subjective histology the appearances were similar in most patients, in approximately 33% the duodenal abnormality was the most severe and, surprisingly, the jejunal abnormality was more severe in approximately 15%. It is concluded that multiple, precisely located biopsies of both the duodenum and proximal jejunum are invaluable in the investigation of small bowel disease and in assessing response to treatment. (+info)
CTLA-4 gene polymorphism is associated with predisposition to coeliac disease.
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to coeliac disease is strongly associated with particular HLA class II alleles. However, non-HLA genetic factors are likely to be required for the development of the disease. Among candidate genes is the CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated) gene located on chromosome 2q33 in humans, which encodes a cell surface molecule providing a negative signal for T cell activation. AIMS: To investigate CTLA-4 exon 1 polymorphism (position 49 A/G) in patients with coeliac disease. PATIENTS: 101 patients with coeliac disease and 130 healthy controls. METHODS: Allele specific hybridisation and restriction enzyme digestion of polymerase chain reaction amplified genomic DNA. RESULTS: The A allele of the CTLA-4 position 49 polymorphism was found on 82.2% of chromosomes in patients with coeliac disease compared with 65.8% in controls (p < 0.0001), mostly in the homozygous form (68.3% in patients versus 47.7% in controls; odds ratio (OR) 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37 to 4.06, p = 0.002). Four patients only had the G/G genotype compared with 21 controls (OR 0.21, CI 10.07 to 0.64, p = 0.002). These differences were maintained when subjects were stratified according to the HLA class II phenotype, in particular when patients and controls were matched for the presence of the predisposing HLA DQB1*02 (DQ2) allele or HLA-DQA1*0501/DQB1*02 heterodimer. CONCLUSION: The CTLA-4 gene polymorphism is a non-HLA determinant that predisposes to coeliac disease. Whether it directly contributes to disease susceptibility or represents a marker for a locus in linkage disequilibrium with CTLA-4 needs further investigation. (+info)
Risk of primary biliary liver cirrhosis in patients with coeliac disease: Danish and Swedish cohort data.
BACKGROUND: Several case reports, but only a few studies, have examined the coexistence of coeliac disease and primary biliary cirrhosis. AIM: To estimate the risk of primary biliary cirrhosis in two national cohorts of patients with coeliac disease in Denmark and Sweden. METHODS: Through record linkage all Danish patients hospitalised with coeliac disease were followed for possible occurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis from 1 January 1977 until 31 December 1992. All patients hospitalised with coeliac disease in Sweden from 1987 to 1996 were also followed in a separate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 896 patients with coeliac disease were identified in Denmark with a median follow up period of 9.1 years for a total of 8040 person-years at risk. Two cases of primary biliary cirrhosis were observed where 0.07 were expected, giving a standardised incidence ratio of 27.6 (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 133.5). A total of 7735 patients with coeliac disease were identified in Sweden with a median follow up period of 5.1 years for a total of 39 284 person-years at risk. Twenty two people with primary biliary cirrhosis were identified compared with 0.88 expected, giving a standardised incidence ratio of 25.1 (95% confidence interval 15.7 to 37.9). CONCLUSION: Patients with coeliac disease are at increased risk of having primary biliary cirrhosis. (+info)