(1/31) Protection with antibody to tumor necrosis factor differs with similarly lethal Escherichia coli versus Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in rats.
BACKGROUND: Differing factors may alter the effects of antibody to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in infection and sepsis. The authors tested whether bacteria type or treatment route alters antibody to TNF in a rat model of bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: Rats (n = 231) received similarly lethal doses of either intratracheal Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus followed by treatment with either intratracheal or intraperitoneal antibody to TNF or control serum. Animals received antibiotics (cefotiam daily dose, 100 mg/kg) starting 4 h after inoculation and were studied for up to 96 h. RESULTS: Compared with S. aureus, E. coli increased serum TNF and interleukin-6 concentrations, lung lavage TNF concentrations, neutrophil counts, and alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradients and decreased circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes (P > or = 0.05 for all). Compared with controls, with both bacteria, except for lung lavage TNF concentrations (which decreased with intratracheal but not with intraperitoneal antibody to TNF), treatment route did not alter the effects of antibody to TNF on any parameter (P = not significant for all). Antibody to TNF reduced mortality rates (relative risk of death +/- SEM) with both E. coli (-1.6 +/- 0.6; P = 0.006) and S. aureus (-0.5 +/- 0.04; P = 0.185), but these reductions were greater with E. coli than with S. aureus in a trend approaching statistical significance (P = 0.09). Compared with controls, similarly (P = not significant) with both bacteria, antibody to TNF decreased lung lavage and tissue bacteria concentrations (both P < 0.05) and serum TNF concentration (P < 0.09) and increased circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes (both P < or = 0.01). Compared with S. aureus, with E. coli antibody to TNF decreased alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradients (P = 0.04) and increased serum interleukin-6 concentrations (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Antibody to TNF improved host defense and survival rates with both lethal E. coli and S. aureus pneumonia, but protection was greater with E. coli, where TNF concentrations were higher than with S. aureus. The efficacy of antiinflammatory agents in sepsis may be altered by bacteria type. (+info)
(2/31) Cl- -dependent upregulation of human organic anion transporters: different effects on transport kinetics between hOAT1 and hOAT3.
Chloride ion has a stimulatory effect on the transport of organic anions across renal basolateral membranes. However, the exact mechanisms at molecular levels have been unclear as of yet. Human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3 play important roles in renal basolateral membranes. In this study, the effects of Cl(-) on the activities of these transporters were evaluated by using HEK293 cells stably expressing hOAT1 or hOAT3 (HEK-hOAT1 or HEK-hOAT3). The uptake of p-[(14)C]aminohippurate by HEK-hOAT1 and [(3)H]estrone sulfate by HEK-hOAT3 was greater in the presence of Cl(-) than in the presence of SO(4)(2-) or gluconate. Additionally, the uptake of various compounds by HEK-hOAT1 and HEK-hOAT3 was significantly higher in the Cl(-)-containing medium than the gluconate-containing medium, suggesting that the influences of Cl(-) are not dependent on substrate and that Cl(-) directly stimulates the functions of hOAT1 and hOAT3. The substitution of gluconate with Cl(-) did not change the K(m) value for the uptake of p-[(14)C]aminohippurate by HEK-hOAT1 but caused an approximately threefold increase in the maximal uptake rate (V(max)) value. On the other hand, replacement of gluconate with Cl(-) decreased the K(m) value for the uptake of [(3)H]estrone sulfate and cefotiam by HEK-hOAT3 to about one-third, while it did not change the V(max) value. In summary, Cl(-) upregulates the activities of both hOAT1 and hOAT3, but its effects on transport kinetics differ between these transporters. It was suggested that Cl(-) participates in the trans-location process for hOAT1, and the substrate recognition process for hOAT3. (+info)
(3/31) Adaptive responses of renal organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) during cholestasis.
(4/31) Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cefotaxime susceptibility is increasingly common in men who have sex with men, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) treatment. Presently, third-generation parenteral cephalosporins, like ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, are the first option. Resistance to oral, but not to parenteral, third-generation cephalosporins has been reported previously. We analysed the microbial susceptibility (as minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) of NG cultures obtained from high-risk visitors of the largest Dutch outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Among 1,596 visitors, we identified 102 patients with at least one NG isolate with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime (0.125 microg/ml < MIC < or = 0.5 microg/ml). The percentage of NG isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime rose from 4.8% in 2006 to 12.1% in 2008 (chi2 17.5, p<0.001). With multivariate logistic regression, being a man who has sex with men (MSM) was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime (p<0.001). Compared to susceptible NG isolates, those with decreased susceptiblity to cefotaxime were more often resistant also to penicillin (16.5% vs. 43.3%), tetracycline (21.5% vs. 68.9%) and ciprofloxacin (44.4% vs. 90.0%, all p<0.001). The increased prevalence of NG strains with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime among MSM may herald resistance to third-generation parenteral cephalosporins. A considerable proportion of these strains show resistance to multiple antibiotics which could limit future NG treatment options. (+info)
(5/31) Molecular-weight-dependent, anionic-substrate-preferential transport of beta-lactam antibiotics via multidrug resistance-associated protein 4.
(6/31) Interaction of cefpirome and a cephalosporinase from Citrobacter freundii GN7391.
The interaction of cefpirome and a cephalosporinase from Citrobacter freundii, including hydrolysis and inhibition, was studied in comparison with those of cefotiam, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Cefpirome was hydrolyzed by the enzyme more rapidly at Vmax than were cefotaxime and ceftazidime. However, the low affinity of the enzyme for cefpirome caused a reduction in the hydrolytic rate of cefpirome at a low drug concentration (0.1 microM). The high stability of cefpirome at a low concentration explains the high antimicrobial activity of the agent against cephalosporinase-producing bacteria. (+info)
(7/31) Cefotiam disposition in markedly obese athlete patients, Japanese sumo wrestlers.
Markedly obese athletes like Japanese sumo wrestlers may frequently suffer various traumas which result in the prophylaxis or treatment of posttraumatic infection with antibiotics. However, appropriate dosage regimens in this group of patients have not been fully known for many antibiotics. Therefore, we studied the kinetic disposition of cefotiam, a parenteral, broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, after an intravenous dose (2 g) infused over 30 min into 15 sumo wrestler patients with an excess body weight (130 to 220% of ideal body weight) and 10 control patients with a normal weight (90 to 102% of ideal body weight). Mean (+/- standard deviation) clearance and steady-state volume of distribution were significantly greater in the sumo wrestler than in the control group (38.3 +/- 9.4 versus 23.5 +/- 6.0 liters/h, P less than 0.001, and 30.2 +/- 8.0 versus 17.9 +/- 6.1 liters, P less than 0.001). Mean elimination half-life was slightly but significantly longer in the sumo wrestler than in the control group (0.91 +/- 0.14 versus 0.74 +/- 0.20 h, P less than 0.05). However, mean residence time did not differ between the two groups (0.79 +/- 0.10 versus 0.75 +/- 0.14 h). The statistical differences in clearance and volume of distribution between the two groups disappeared when these kinetic parameters were corrected for body surface area, but not for total body weight or ideal body weight. The results suggest that the dosage calculation of cefotiam, a hydrophilic antibiotic, should be made on the basis of body surface area in morbidly obese athlete or sumo wrestler patients. However, whether this recommendation should extend to other nonathlete obese subjects remains to be determined. (+info)
(8/31) In vitro evaluation of E1040, a new cephalosporin with potent antipseudomonal activity.
E1040 is a new parenteral cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum and potent antipseudomonal activity. The compound was four- to eightfold more active than ceftazidime and cefsulodin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC of E1040 for 90% of strains tested [MIC90], 3.13 micrograms/ml). E1040 also showed a potent activity against other glucose-nonfermentative rods, including Acinetobacter species. The activities of E1040 against most species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were roughly comparable to the activities of ceftazidime and cefmenoxime and exceeded that of cefotiam. Against Citrobacter freundii (MIC90, 0.78 micrograms/ml), Enterobacter cloacae (MIC90, 3.13 micrograms/ml), and Enterobacter aerogenes (MIC90, 0.2 micrograms/ml), E1040 was 16- to 256-fold more active than ceftazidime and cefmenoxime. The activities of E1040 against gram-positive cocci and anaerobes were comparable to those of ceftazidime, but the compound was less active than cefmenoxime. E1040 was at least as resistant as ceftazidime and cefmenoxime to hydrolysis by various beta-lactamases and showed high affinities for penicillin-binding protein 3 of both Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa. (+info)