(1/39) Cross-reactivity of cefotetan and ceftriaxone antibodies, associated with hemolytic anemia, with other: cephalosporins and penicillin.
Most drug-induced immune hemolytic anemias since the late 1980s have been caused by the second- and third-generation cephalosporins, cefotetan and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cross-reactivity of cefotetan and ceftriaxone antibodies with other cephalosporins or penicillin has been studied only minimally. We tested 7 serum samples previously identified to contain cefotetan antibodies and one serum sample previously identified to contain ceftriaxone antibodies against 9 other cephalosporins, penicillin, and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid in the presence of RBCs and also used hapten inhibition to indicate cross-reactivity. Serum samples containing cefotetan antibodies showed some cross-reactivity with cephalothin and cefoxitin (and to a much lesser extent with penicillin and ceftazidime). The ceftriaxone antibodies showed very weak cross-reactivity with cefotaxime, cefamandole, and cefoperazone. There was very little cross-reactivity between cefotetan antibodies and the drugs tested in the present study. We have no data to determine whether the in vitro data relate to in vivo reactivity. (+info)
(2/39) Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a diagnosis to consider in women with right upper quadrant pain.
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome--inflammation of the liver capsule associated with genital tract infection--occurs in up to one fourth of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Classically presenting as sharp, pleuritic right upper quadrant pain, usually but not always accompanied by signs of salpingitis, it can mimic many other common disorders such as cholecystitis and pyelonephritis. (+info)
(3/39) Pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of single-dose cefotetan used for antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
The pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of cefotetan were studied after a single injection of 2 g given intravenously for antimicrobial prophylaxis to 16 consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Concentrations in tissue greater than or equal to the MIC for 90% of the main pathogens tested were considered adequate. The elimination half-life at beta phase was 4.6 +/- 1.4 h, the total body clearance was 0.75 +/- 0.19 ml/kg/min, and the volume of distribution was 260 +/- 71 ml/kg. At the time of incision (33 +/- 16 min after the injection), cefotetan concentrations were 14.2 +/- 7 micrograms/g in abdominal-wall fat, 16.4 +/- 1 micrograms/g in epiploic fat, and 163 +/- 62 mg/liter in serum. At the time of surgical anastomosis (151 +/- 54 min), cefotetan concentrations were 33.3 +/- 6 micrograms/g in the colonic wall and 73 +/- 34 mg/liter in serum. Upon closure of the abdomen (216 +/- 76 min), cefotetan concentrations were 6.3 +/- 3 micrograms/g in abdominal-wall fat, 6.1 +/- 4 micrograms/g in epiploic fat, and 64 +/- 38 mg/liter in serum. Cefotetan tissue penetration was 10% into abdominal and epiploic fat and 46% into the colonic wall. Levels in tissue were compared with the MIC for 90% of the most frequently encountered pathogenic germs (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli). Adequate concentrations in tissue were obtained up to anastomosis but not upon closure. The authors therefore recommend the injection of an additional dose of 1 g before closure in order to ensure optimal efficacy throughout the surgical procedure. (+info)
(4/39) Evaluation of beta-lactamase inhibitors in disk tests for detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in well-characterized clinical strains of Klebsiella spp.
The diagnostic utility of the AmpC beta-lactamase inhibitors LN-2-128, 48-1220, and Syn 2190 in combination with cefotetan (CTT) or cefoxitin in a disk test for the detection of clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp. producing plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (pAmpCs) was evaluated. The combination of Syn 2190 and CTT had a sensitivity of 91%, a specificity of 100%, and a reproducibility of 100% and showed the best potential of using an inhibitor for detection of Klebsiella spp. producing pAmpCs. (+info)
(5/39) Radiation recall dermatitis with cefotetan: a case study.
Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an inflammatory skin reaction that occurs in a previously irradiated body part following drug administration. This phenomenon may occur from days to years following exposure to ionizing radiation. The case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman who was initially treated with external-beam radiation to the right thoracic region following the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung is reported. She received four cycles of consolidated chemotherapy with docetaxel and carboplatin. Four months later, she was admitted to the hospital for acute cholecystitis and was placed on cefotetan. She developed a tender, erythematous rash on the posterior region of her right thorax 48 hours later. The drug was withdrawn, supportive care was instituted, and the patient subsequently improved. RRD should be suspected in patients who develop an erythematous rash in a previously irradiated region. To our knowledge this entity has not been associated with cefotetan previously. (+info)
(6/39) Ertapenem versus cefotetan prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery.
BACKGROUND: Ertapenem, a long-acting carbapenem, may be an alternative to the recommended prophylactic antibiotic cefotetan. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis with ertapenem, as compared with cefotetan, in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. A successful outcome was defined as the absence of surgical-site infection, anastomotic leakage, or antibiotic use 4 weeks postoperatively. All adverse events were collected until 14 days after the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. RESULTS: Of the 1002 patients randomly assigned to study groups, 901 (451 in the ertapenem group and 450 in the cefotetan group) qualified for the modified intention-to-treat analysis, and 672 (338 in the ertapenem group and 334 in the cefotetan group) were included in the per-protocol analysis. After adjustment for strata, in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, the rate of overall prophylactic failure was 40.2% in the ertapenem group and 50.9% in the cefotetan group (absolute difference, -10.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -4.2); in the per-protocol analysis, the failure rate was 28.0% in the ertapenem group and 42.8% in the cefotetan group (absolute difference, -14.8%; 95% CI, -21.9 to -7.5). Both analyses fulfilled statistical criteria for the superiority of ertapenem. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, the most common reason for failure of prophylaxis in both groups was surgical-site infection: 17.1% in the ertapenem group and 26.2% in the cefotetan group (absolute difference, -9.1; 95% CI, -14.4 to -3.7). In the treated population, the overall incidence of Clostridium difficile infection was 1.7% in the ertapenem group and 0.6% in the cefotetan group (P=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Ertapenem is more effective than cefotetan in the prevention of surgical-site infection in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery but may be associated with an increase in C. difficile infection. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090272 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). (+info)
(7/39) Interpretive criteria and quality control guidelines for Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility test standardization for cefotetan.
Cefotetan was tested in a multilaboratory study to standardize susceptibility testing criteria and quality control guidelines for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cefotetan was most active against penicillinase-producing and penicillin-susceptible strains (MIC for 50% of strains tested, 0.5 micrograms/ml) and was least active against the chromosomally resistant isolates (MIC for 50% of strains tested, 2 micrograms/ml). The recommended 30-micrograms disk cefotetan interpretive criteria were as follows: susceptible at greater than or equal to 26 mm (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml), intermediate at 20 to 25 mm (4 micrograms/ml), and resistant at less than or equal to 19 mm (greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). Quality control guidelines for agar dilution and disk diffusion tests were established by using numerous GC agar lots, three cefotetan 30-micrograms disk lots, two quality control organisms, and a volume of tests consistent with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M23-T guidelines. (+info)
(8/39) Antibiotic treatment and associated prolonged prothrombin time.
The incidence and type of pathology causing a prolonged prothrombin time and clinical bleeding episodes were assessed in a multicentre study of 1109 patients receiving cefotetan, a N-methyl-thiotetrazole (NMTT), or equivalent antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the incidence of a prolonged prothrombin time (9.9% with cefotetan, 8.0% with comparable antibiotics) of clinical bleeding episodes. However, prothrombin time increases of greater than 12 seconds were significantly (p = 0.002) greater with cefotetan (3.8%) than with comparators (0.8%). In both antibiotic groups increases in prothrombin time were more likely following surgery and in patients who were older, with a high platelet count, low albumin, or higher urea and creatinine concentrations. All antibiotic treatment can be associated with prolonged prothrombin times and new agents should always be assessed in a large multicentre study before the practical, clinical importance of haemostatic defects can be defined. (+info)