(1/42) Sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefmetazole enhance serum bactericidal activity in vitro by amplifying poly-C9 deposition.
Serum-resistant organisms grown in sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics in vitro may be rendered sensitive to complement-mediated, serum bactericidal activity. We measured 125I-C3 and 125I-C9 deposition on genetically serum resistant Salmonella montevideo SH5770 (SH5770) that was rendered serum sensitive by growth in sub-MICs of cefmetazole (CMZ), a parenteral, second generation, cephamycin-group antibiotic. Three times as much C3 and over six times as much C9 bound to SH5770 grown in one-fourth the MIC of CMZ compared to broth-grown bacteria. SDS-PAGE analysis and autoradiography showed that neither the ratio of C3b:iC3b (approximately 1:2.5) nor the nature of the C3-bacterial bond was changed by growing the organisms in CMZ. Large amounts of complement membrane attack complexes containing poly-C9 were seen only on CMZ-grown SH5770 by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Poly-C9 was also detected only on CMZ-grown bacteria by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA using a murine monoclonal antibody directed against a neoantigen of poly-C9. Bacterial hydrophobicity increased after growth in CMZ, and transmission electron micrographs of CMZ-grown SH5770 showed cell wall disruption and blebbing. These results indicate that growth in subMICs of CMZ increases bacterial hydrophobic domains available for interacting with the membrane attack complex, C5b-9, allowing formation and stable insertion of bactericidal complexes containing poly-C9. (+info)
(2/42) Inhibition of biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion by cefmetazole. The role of vesicular transport and of canalicular events.
A number of organic anions selectively inhibit the biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids without affecting bile acid secretion. We studied the effect of cefmetazole, a third-generation cephalosporin, on biliary lipid secretion in the rat. Injection of cefmetazole at a dose of 200 mumol/kg body wt. induced a choleretic effect and a significant decrease in the biliary output of cholesterol and phospholipid, without changes in bile acid secretion. The decrease was more marked for cholesterol than for phospholipid secretion, with a significant decrease in their molar ratio in bile. The effects were apparently unrelated to an inhibition of intracellular vesicular transport because, after injection of horseradish peroxidase, both the time course and total amount secreted of the protein did not significantly differ between control animals and those receiving cefmetazole. The secretory rate of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase was not affected by cefmetazole administration. Biliary outputs of the plasma-membrane enzymes alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by the antibiotic. These results point to an effect of cefmetazole at the level of the canalicular membrane. (+info)
(3/42) Verification of cefmetazole and cefpodoxime proxetil contamination to other pharmaceuticals by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Cross-contamination is a critical issue for pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially for beta-lactam antibiotics. Thus, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of beta-lactam antibiotics cefmetazole (CMZ) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDXPR) contaminants in non-beta-lactam pharmaceuticals was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was found to be sensitive at the detection limit of 0.002 ppm for both compounds. Mean recoveries of CMZ and CPDXPR from olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) tablets were 96.7 to 102.2% and 88.9 to 94.2%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the verification of CMZ and CPDXPR contamination to actually manufactured OLM tablets. (+info)
(4/42) Humanization of excretory pathway in chimeric mice with humanized liver.
The liver of a chimeric urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(+/+)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse line recently established in Japan could be replaced by more than 80% with human hepatocytes. We previously reported that the chimeric mice with humanized liver could be useful as a human model in studies on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the humanization of an excretory pathway was investigated in the chimeric mice. Cefmetazole (CMZ) was used as a probe drug. The CMZ excretions in urine and feces were 81.0 and 5.9% of the dose, respectively, in chimeric mice and were 23.7 and 59.4% of the dose, respectively, in control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. Because CMZ is mainly excreted in urine in humans, the excretory profile of chimeric mice was demonstrated to be similar to that of humans. In the chimeric mice, the hepatic mRNA expression of human drug transporters could be quantified. On the other hand, the hepatic mRNA expression of mouse drug transporters in the chimeric mice was significantly lower than in the control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. In conclusion, chimeric mice exhibited a humanized profile of drug excretion, suggesting that this chimeric mouse line would be a useful animal model in excretory studies. (+info)
(5/42) Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium fortuitum biovar. fortuitum and the two subgroups of Mycobacterium chelonae to imipenem, cefmetazole, cefoxitin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
MICs of imipenem, cefoxitin, cefmetazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were determined against 100 strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum and 200 strains of Mycobacterium chelonae. Imipenem and cefmetazole were more active against M. fortuitum than cefoxitin was, and imipenem (which inhibited 39% of strains at 8 micrograms/ml) was the only beta-lactam active against M. chelonae subsp. chelonae. (+info)
(6/42) Comparative evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of N-methylthiotetrazole following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole.
The comparative pharmacokinetics and in vivo production of N-methylthiotetrazole (NMTT) were evaluated following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole. In a randomized-crossover manner, 11 healthy male volunteers received single 2-g intravenous doses of each agent and serial blood and urine samples were collected. Concentrations of NMTT and the parent compound in plasma, urine, and the reconstituted antibiotic solution were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The amounts of NMTT administered were 6.06 +/- 0.46, 14.4 +/- 0.87, and 17.4 +/- 1.06 mg for cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole, respectively (P less than 0.05). The mean NMTT plasma concentration-time profiles following administration of each cephalosporin were markedly different. Six hours after dosing, NMTT concentrations in plasma following cefoperazone administration were higher than those following administration of cefmetazole and cefotetan. Urinary recoveries of NMTT averaged 137.0 +/- 37.1, 38.3 +/- 6.98, and 25.2 +/- 5.95 mg following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole, respectively (P less than 0.01). The apparent amount of NMTT produced in vivo, calculated by subtracting the amount of NMTT administered from the amount of NMTT excreted in urine, was significantly lower following cefmetazole administration than after administration of cefoperazone and cefotetan (P less than 0.01). The discrepancy between in vitro NMTT production (cefmetazole greater than cefotetan greater than cefoperazone) and the amount of NMTT formed in vivo and excreted unchanged (cefoperazone greater than cefotetan greater than cefmetazole) suggests that in vivo production of NMTT is dependent on the disposition of the parent cephalosporin. These results further suggest that cephalosporins which undergo extensive biliary excretion, such as cefoperazone, are associated with the greatest amount of in vivo NMTT release, whereas cephalosporins which are primarily renally excreted, such as cefmetazole, are associated with the lowest in vivo production of NMTT. (+info)
(7/42) Effect of ampicillin, cefmetazole and minocycline on the adherence of Branhamella catarrhalis to pharyngeal epithelial cells.
Using pharyngeal epithelial cells from a healthy adult and eight strains of Branhamella catarrhalis (B. catarrhalis) isolated from eight patients with respiratory infection the effect of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of cefmetazole, ampicillin and minocycline on adherence was examined. Cefmetazole-treated bacterial attachment (44 +/- 28; mean +/- S.D.) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) compared to the control (84 +/- 27). Statistically no significant difference in adherence was found between ampicillin-treated bacteria (63 +/- 36) and the control (95 +/- 40) or minocycline-treated bacteria (91 +/- 39) and the control (109 +/- 40). Large bacteria was observed after cefmetazole and ampicillin treatment. In addition to diplococci, tetrads were observed after cefmetazole treatment. Significant correlation between the MICs and adherence ability was not found. The results suggests that these three antibiotics were not responsible for the increase in B. catarrhalis infection by increasing adherence ability. (+info)
(8/42) A successfully treated case of Vibrio vulnificus septicemia with shock.
Vibrio vulnificus infection often causes serious or fatal disease. Recently, in Japan there have been numerous reports of Vibrio vulnificus infection. Here, we report a successfully treated case of Vibrio vulnificus septicemia with shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and necrotizing cellulitis in a middle-aged heavy drinker with chronic alcoholic liver disease. On reviewing 38 cases in Japan including ours, the overall mortality rate was 68%. Although the incidence is relatively low, it is recommended to warn patients in the high risk category, such as liver disease patients, to avoid raw fish and shellfish and limit sea water exposure. (+info)