(1/308) Structure-function studies of Ser-289 in the class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99.
Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-289 of the class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99 was performed to investigate the role of this residue in beta-lactam hydrolysis. This amino acid lies near the active site of the enzyme, where it can interact with the C-3 substituent of cephalosporins. Kinetic analysis of six mutant beta-lactamases with five cephalosporins showed that Ser-289 can be substituted by amino acids with nonpolar or polar uncharged side chains without altering the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. These data suggest that Ser-289 is not essential in the binding or hydrolytic mechanism of AmpC beta-lactamase. However, replacement by Lys or Arg decreased by two- to threefold the kcat of four of the five beta-lactams tested, particularly cefoperazone, cephaloridine, and cephalothin. Three-dimensional models of the mutant beta-lactamases revealed that the length and positive charge of the side chain of Lys and Arg could create an electrostatic linkage to the C-4 carboxylic acid group of the dihydrothiazine ring of the acyl intermediate which could slow the deacylation step or hinder release of the product. (+info)
(2/308) Pharmacokinetics of intermittent intraperitoneal cefazolin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of intermittent intraperitoneal (IP) cefazolin, and recommend a cefazolin dosing regimen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized open study. SETTING: CAPD outpatient clinic in Albany, New York. PATIENTS: Seven volunteer CAPD patients without peritonitis. Three of the patients were nonanuric while 4 were anuric. INTERVENTIONS: Cefazolin (15 mg/kg total body weight) was given to each patient during the first peritoneal exchange. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at times 0, 0.5, 1,2,3,6 (end of the first antibiotic-containing dwell), 24, and 48 hours after the administration of IP cefazolin. Urine samples were collected in nonanuric patients over the study period. RESULTS: The mean+/-SD amount of cefazolin dose absorbed from the dialysate after the 6-hour dwell was 69.7%+/-8.0% of the administered dose. The cefazolin absorption rate constant from dialysate to serum was 0.21+/-0.1/hr (absorption half-life 3.5+/-0.8 hr). The mean serum concentrations reached at 24 and 48 hours were 52.4+/-3.7 mg/L and 30.3+/-5.9 mg/L, respectively. The mean dialysate cefazolin concentrations reached at 24 and 48 hours were 15.1+/-3.4 mg/L and 7.9+/-1.4 mg/L, respectively. The cefazolin serum elimination rate constant was 0.02+/-0.01/hr (elimination half-life 31.5+/-8.8 hr). The total cefazolin body clearance was 3.4+/-0.6 ml/min. In the 3 nonanuric patients the mean renal clearance of cefazolin was 0.6+/-0.4 ml/min. The peritoneal clearance of cefazolin was 1.0+/-0.3 mL/min. The systemic volume of distribution of cefazolin was 0.2+/-0.05 L/kg. No statistical difference was detected in pharmacokinetic parameters between anuric and nonanuric patients, although this may be due to the small number of patients in each group. CONCLUSION: A single daily dose of cefazolin dosed at 15 mg/kg actual body weight in CAPD patients is effective in achieving serum concentration levels greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for sensitive organisms over 48 hours, and dialysate concentration levels over 24 hours. Caution is warranted in extrapolation of dosing recommendations to patients who maintain a significant degree of residual renal function. (+info)
(3/308) Primary Shewanella alga septicemia in a patient on hemodialysis.
We report the first Japanese case of primary septicemia with Shewanella alga and also describe the bacteriological characteristics of and results of antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolate. S. alga was repeatedly isolated, at times simultaneously with Escherichia coli, from the blood of a 64-year-old female undergoing hemodialysis. The isolated organism was determined to be S. alga based on recently published identification criteria, such as hemolysis on sheep blood agar, no acid production from carbohydrates, and growth on agar containing 6. 5% NaCl. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests demonstrated that the isolate was sensitive to levofloxacin and cefpirome (MICs, =0.063) but resistant to cefazolin, ceftizoxime, and imipenem (MICs, >128, 64, and 8 microg/ml, respectively). Although the role of S. alga as a human pathogen has not been fully determined, accumulating data suggest that this organism may be a potential pathogen, especially in compromised hosts. (+info)
(4/308) Prophylactic cefazolin in amnioinfusions administered for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if amnioinfusion with an antibiotic solution decreased the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and puerperal endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. METHODS: Patients in labor at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with singleton pregnancies and meconium-stained amniotic fluid were randomized to receive either cefazolin, 1 g/1,000 mL, of normal saline (n = 90) or normal saline (n = 93) amnioinfusion. Rates of clinically diagnosed chorioamnionitis and endometritis and of suspected and culture-proven neonatal infection were determined. RESULTS: Between the study and control groups, the incidences of clinical chorioamnionitis (7.8% vs. 8.6%), endometritis (2.4% vs. 3.5%), aggregate intrauterine infection (10.0% vs. 11.8%), suspected neonatal infection (17.8% vs. 21.5%), and proven neonatal infection (0.0% vs. 2.2%) were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of cefazolin in amnioinfusions did not significantly reduce rates of maternal or neonatal infection in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. (+info)
(5/308) Antibacterial activity of combinations of cefazolin and semisynthetic penicillins.
The antibacterial activity of cephalosporin (CS) and semisynthetic penicillins was studied using CS-resistant strains of Escherichia freundii and Proteus morganii. A synergistic growth inhibitory action toward these microorganisms was demonstrated by a qualitative method and confirmed by a quantitative determination. (+info)
(6/308) Treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections: two randomized, multicentre studies of quinupristin/dalfopristin versus cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin. Synercid Skin and Skin Structure Infection Group.
Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), the first injectable streptogramin antibiotic available for the treatment of complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, was compared with standard comparators (cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin) in one USA and one international trial. These two randomized, open-label trials of virtually identical design enrolled a total of 893 patients (450 quinupristin/dalfopristin, 443 comparator). The majority of patients had erysipelas, traumatic wound infection or clean surgical wound infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in both treatment groups and polymicrobial infection was more common in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group than in the comparator group. The clinical success rate (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population was equivalent between the two treatment groups (68.2% quinupristin/dalfopristin, 70.7% comparator; 95% CI, -10.1, 5.1) despite a shorter mean duration of treatment for quinupristin/dalfopristin patients. In the bacteriologically evaluable population, by-patient and by-pathogen bacteriological eradication rates were somewhat lower for quinupristin/dalfopristin (65.8% and 66.6%, respectively) than for the comparator regimens (72.7% and 77.7%, respectively). The lower bacteriological response rates in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group were, in part, due to a higher rate of polymicrobial infections and a higher incidence of patients classified as clinical failure, a category which included premature discontinuation of treatment because of local venous adverse events. The bacteriological eradication rate for quinupristin/dalfopristin was higher in monomicrobial infections than in polymicrobial infections (72.6% versus 63.3%, respectively), whereas the corresponding rate for the comparator regimens was lower for monomicrobial infections than polymicrobial infections (70.8% versus 83.1%). This finding was not unexpected, since the spectrum of quinupristin/dalfopristin is focused on gram-positive pathogens and additional antibiotics to treat gram-negative bacteria were not required per protocol. The systemic tolerability of both treatment regimens was qualitatively similar. A higher rate of drug-related venous adverse events was reported for quinupristin/dalfopristin (66.2%) than for the comparator regimen (28.4%). Premature discontinuation of study drug was primarily due to adverse clinical events for quinupristin/dalfopristin (19.1%), whereas the most common reason for discontinuation among those receiving the comparator regimens was treatment failure (11.5%). Quinupristin/dalfopristin is an effective alternative for the treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to quinupristin/ dalfopristin-susceptible gram-positive organisms, including methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus. (+info)
(7/308) Bacteremic pneumonia caused by a single clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae with different optochin susceptibilities.
Two isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae having different optochin susceptibilities were recovered from a blood sample of a 2-year-old boy with community-acquired pneumonia. The two isolates were documented to belong to a single clone on the basis of the isolates' identical serotype (23F), antibiograms by the E-test, random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns generated by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the penicillin-binding protein genes pbp2b and pbp2x. (+info)
(8/308) Fluoroquinolone and fortified antibiotics for treating bacterial corneal ulcers.
AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy of commercially available fluoroquinolone drops with the use of combined fortified antibiotics (tobramycin 1.3%-cefazolin 5%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer. METHODS: The medical records of 140 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial corneal ulcer who were admitted to the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia between January 1993 and December 1997 were reviewed retrospectively. Final outcome and results of 138 ulcer episodes were compared between those treated initially with fluoroquinolone and those who received fortified antibiotics. Two patients had been treated with chloramphenicol. RESULTS: No significant treatment difference was found between fluoroquinolone and fortified therapy in terms of final visual outcome. However, serious complications such as corneal perforation, evisceration, or enucleation of the affected eye were more common with fluoroquinolone therapy (16.7%) compared with the fortified therapy (2.4%, p= 0.02). The duration of intensive therapy was less with fluoroquinolone especially in those over 60 years of age (4 days v 6 days, p=0.01). Hospital stay was also less in the fluoroquinolone group compared with the fortified group for all patients and was significantly less with fluoroquinolone treatment (7 days v 10 days, p=0.02) in patients in the age group over 60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Monotherapy with fluoroquinolone eye drops for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers led to shorter duration of intensive therapy and shorter hospital stay compared with combined fortified therapy (tobramycin-cefazolin). This finding may have resulted from quicker clinical response of healing as a result of less toxicity found in the patients treated with fluoroquinolone. However, as some serious complications were encountered more commonly in the fluoroquinolone group, caution should be exercised in using fluoroquinolones in large, deep ulcers in the elderly. (+info)