Seven beta-lactam antibiotics (cefepime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefamandole, imipenem and meropenem) were tested for their potential to select resistance in standard and clinical strains of Enterobacter cloacae (n = 9). The strains were subcultured daily with the test antibiotics at doubling concentrations starting at 0.125 x MIC. Development of resistance throughout the passages was detected by a disc diffusion test. Ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefamandole selected resistance at a faster rate than cefoperazone, cefepime and meropenem. Imipenem did not select resistance in the nine strains tested and was the only antibiotic that eradicated all the strains during selection. The resistance patterns of strains selected by meropenem, cefepime and the other cephalosporins were markedly different, although cross-resistance to the early generation cephalosporins was common. The resistance phenotypes of most strains remained stable upon serial passages in antibiotic-free medium. The findings of this study highlight the importance of the choice of antibiotic for therapy not only on the basis of its antibacterial activity, but also on its potential to select resistance to itself and other antibiotics. (+info)
(2/187) Interpretive criteria for cefamandole and cephalothin disk diffusion susceptibility tests.
A multi-center study of 1,838 clinical isolates established the accuracy of diffusion susceptibility tests with 30-mug cephalothin disks and 30-mug cefamandole disks. The same interpretive zone standards can be applied to tests with either disk but the two drugs cannot be tested interchangeably. (+info)
(3/187) Quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with beta-lactams for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) is an injectable streptogramin active against most gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In experimental endocarditis, however, Q-D was less efficacious against MRSA isolates constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogram B (C-MLS(B)) than against MLS(B)-susceptible isolates. To circumvent this problem, we used the checkerboard method to screen drug combinations that would increase the efficacy of Q-D against such bacteria. beta-Lactams consistently exhibited additive or synergistic activity with Q-D. Glycopeptides, quinolones, and aminoglycosides were indifferent. No drugs were antagonistic. The positive Q-D-beta-lactam interaction was independent of MLS(B) or beta-lactam resistance. Moreover, addition of Q-D at one-fourth the MIC to flucloxacillin-containing plates decreased the flucloxacillin MIC for MRSA from 500 to 1,000 mg/liter to 30 to 60 mg/liter. Yet, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations were not synergistic in bactericidal tests. Rats with aortic vegetations were infected with two C-MLS(B)-resistant MRSA isolates (isolates AW7 and P8) and were treated for 3 or 5 days with drug dosages simulating the following treatments in humans: (i) Q-D at 7 mg/kg two times a day (b.i.d.) (a relatively low dosage purposely used to help detect positive drug interactions), (ii) cefamandole at constant levels in serum of 30 mg/liter, (iii) cefepime at 2 g b.i.d., (iv) Q-D combined with either cefamandole or cefepime. Any of the drugs used alone resulted in treatment failure. In contrast, Q-D plus either cefamandole or cefepime significantly decreased valve infection compared to the levels of infection for both untreated controls and those that received monotherapy (P < 0.05). Importantly, Q-D prevented the growth of highly beta-lactam-resistant MRSA in vivo. The mechanism of this beneficial drug interaction is unknown. However, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations might be useful for the treatment of complicated infections caused by multiple organisms, including MRSA. (+info)
(4/187) In vitro activity of piperacillin compared with that of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae.
Piperacillin (T-1220), a semisynthetic derivative of aminobenzylpenicillin, was more active than either carbenicillin or ticarcillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; over 60% of isolates were inhibited at a concentration of 6.3 mug/ml. Piperacillin was bactericidal for 84% of Pseudomonas strains at 100 mug/ml, carbenicillin killed 60%, and ticarcillin killed 68% at that concentration. Piperacillin was also more active than the other penicillins against isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, and Proteus mirabilis. The combination of piperacillin and tobramycin, demonstrating synergistic inhibition of 87% of strains of P. aeruginosa, was the most active of the penicillin-aminoglycoside combinations tested for synergism. (+info)
(5/187) In-vitro bactericidal activity of cefpirome and cefamandole in combination with glycopeptides against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
The bactericidal activity in vitro of cefpirome plus either vancomycin or teicoplanin was compared with that of a cefamandole-vancomycin combination against ten clinical isolates of homogeneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cefpirome (0.125 x MIC) combined with vancomycin (0.5-2 x MIC) or teicoplanin (0.5-4 x MIC) acted synergically against the ten isolates. Similar effects were observed with the cefamandole-vancomycin combination, except that for one isolate, higher cefamandole concentrations (0.25-1 x MIC) were required. (+info)
(6/187) The penetration of ceftriaxone and cefamandole into bone, fat and haematoma and relevance of serum protein binding to their penetration into bone.
Thirteen patients undergoing total hip replacement were given ceftriaxone 1 g and cefamandole 1 g simultaneously, either immediately or 8 h before surgery. For both agents the concentrations seen in the bone and fat during the operation, and for haematoma fluid
(7/187) Antibacterial activity of a new parenteral cephalosporin--HR 756: comparison with cefamandole and ceforanide.
HR 756, a new parenteral cephalosporin that is beta-lactamase resistant, was tested against 271 bacterial isolates. Both agar and broth dilution testing were employed, using two media and two inoculum sizes of bacteria. Antibacterial activity of the drug was compared to that of cefamandole (CFM) and ceforanide (CFN). In agar, HR 756 was more active than CFM and CFN against all bacteria tested except isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, which were better inhibited by CFM. HR 756 exhibited some antipseudomonas activity in agar, although a marked inoculum effect was apparent. A comparison of median minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations in broth showed again that HR 756 was the most active of these three drugs. HR 756 demonstrated enhanced antibacterial activity compared to CFM and CFN against bacteria sensitive to all three drugs as well as against more resistant isolates of Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter species, and indole-positive Proteus. As with other cephalosporins, results for most bacteria were affected by inoculum size, medium, and type of dilution test employed in in vitro studies. (+info)
(8/187) Effect of osmotic stabilizers on radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged bacteria.
The effect of osmotic stabilizers on the 14CO2-dependent radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in BACTEC 14C-labeled blood culture medium. The organisms were previously exposed to cefamandole or carbenicillin at 63 to 80% of the minimum inhibitory concentrations. The addition of 10% sucrose, 2.2% glycerol, and 2.2% ethylene glycol to the medium failed to reduce the time required for detection and diminished the amounts of 14CO2 released by the growing cultures. Viable counts made after 4 to 7 h of incubation showed a decreased culture density in osmotically stabilized media as compared with saline or Ficoll controls. Sucrose and Ficoll had little or no inhibitory effect on 14CO2 evolution by P. aeruginosa. The osmotic stabilizers tested did not seem to improve the survival of the bacterial inoculum and failed to increase the sensitivity of the radiometric system of detection. (+info)