The evolution of trichromatic color vision by opsin gene duplication in New World and Old World primates.
Trichromacy in all Old World primates is dependent on separate X-linked MW and LW opsin genes that are organized into a head-to-tail tandem array flanked on the upstream side by a locus control region (LCR). The 5' regions of these two genes show homology for only the first 236 bp, although within this region, the differences are conserved in humans, chimpanzees, and two species of cercopithecoid monkeys. In contrast, most New World primates have only a single polymorphic X-linked opsin gene; all males are dichromats and trichromacy is achieved only in those females that possess a different form of this gene on each X chromosome. By sequencing the upstream region of this gene in a New World monkey, the marmoset, we have been able to demonstrate the presence of an LCR in an equivalent position to that in Old World primates. Moreover, the marmoset sequence shows extensive homology from the coding region to the LCR with the upstream sequence of the human LW gene, a distance of >3 kb, whereas homology with the human MW gene is again limited to the first 236 bp, indicating that the divergent MW sequence identifies the site of insertion of the duplicated gene. This is further supported by the presence of an incomplete Alu element on the upstream side of this insertion point in the MW gene of both humans and a cercopithecoid monkey, with additional Alu elements present further upstream. Therefore, these Alu elements may have been involved in the initial gene duplication and may also be responsible for the high frequency of gene loss and gene duplication within the opsin gene array. Full trichromacy is present in one species of New World monkey, the howler monkey, in which separate MW and LW genes are again present. In contrast to the separate genes in humans, however, the upstream sequences of the two howler genes show homology with the marmoset for at least 600 bp, which is well beyond the point of divergence of the human MW and LW genes, and each sequence is associated with a different LCR, indicating that the duplication in the howler monkey involved the entire upstream region. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. AF155218, AF156715, and AF156716.] (+info)
Molecular evolution of the CMT1A-REP region: a human- and chimpanzee-specific repeat.
The CMT1A-REP repeat consists of two copies of a 24-kb sequence on human chromosome 17p11.2-12 that flank a 1.5-Mb region containing a dosage-sensitive gene, peripheral nerve protein-22 (PMP22). Unequal meiotic crossover mediated by misalignment of proximal and distal copies of the CMT1A-REP in humans leads to a 1.5-Mb duplication or deletion associated with two common peripheral nerve diseases, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Previous molecular hybridization studies with CMT1A-REP sequences suggested that two copies of the repeat are also found in the chimpanzee, raising the possibility that this unique repeat arose during primate evolution. To further characterize the structure and evolutionary synthesis of the CMT1A-REP repeat, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and heterologous PCR-based assays were carried out for a series of primates. Genomic DNA was analyzed with primers selected to differentially amplify the centromeric and telomeric ends of the human proximal and distal CMT1A-REP elements and an associated mariner (MLE) sequence. All primate species examined (common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, baboon, rhesus monkey, green monkey, owl monkey, and galago) tested positive for a copy of the distal element. In addition to humans, only the chimpanzee was found to have a copy of the proximal CMT1A-REP element. All but one primate species (galago) tested positive for the MLE located within the CMT1A-REP sequence. These observations confirm the hypothesis that the distal CMT1A-REP element is the ancestral sequence which was duplicated during primate evolution, provide support for a human-chimpanzee clade, and suggest that insertion of the MLE into the CMT1A-REP sequence occurred in the ancestor of anthropoid primates. (+info)
Gene assignment in the spider monkey (Ateles paniscus chamek--APC): APE-MYH7 to 2q; AR-GLA-F8C to the X chromosome.
Comparative gene assignment between the spider monkey species Ateles paniscus chamek (APC) and man (HSA) showed conserved syntenic associations despite extensive karyotypic rearrangement between species. Two HSA 14q genes were allocated to APC 2q, being syntenic to other HSA 14q and HSA 15q markers previously assigned to APC 2q, and to HSA 12q genes previously assigned to APC 2p. These findings were consistent with A. geoffroyi chromosome painting with human whole-chromosome probes, indicating that the genus Ateles is karyotypically very rearranged. On the other hand, three human X-linked markers were assigned to the Ateles X chromosome, indicating that this chromosome is evolutionary stable. (+info)
New world, but not Old World, monkeys carry several genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein.
It was shown by Southern hybridization that cotton-top tamarin and common marmoset, New World monkeys, carry three or more genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein, also known as PSP94. In contrast, the genomes of Old World monkeys, as represented by rhesus macaque and sacred baboon, contain a single gene. Clones containing three different genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein were isolated from a cotton-top tamarin genomic library. They carry two complete genes of four exons and a third gene lacking the first exon. The structure suggests that the three genes are functionally active and give rise to transcripts that are approximately 86% similar in sequence. By sequencing one gene in full, it was shown that the introns carry an excess of interspersed repeats, on average 29% of the introns consist of Alu repeats. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the genes probably arose in New World monkeys after the separation from Old World primates. (+info)
Primate pericentromeric regions recently have been shown to exhibit extraordinary evolutionary plasticity. In this paper we report an additional peculiar feature of these regions that we discovered while analyzing, by FISH, the evolutionary conservation of primate phylogenetic chromosome IX. If the position of the centromere is not taken into account, a relatively small number of rearrangements must be invoked to account for interspecific differences. Conversely, if the centromere is included, a paradox emerges: The position of the centromere seems to have undergone, in some species, an evolutionary history independent from the surrounding markers. A significant number of additional rearrangements must be proposed to reconcile the order of the markers with centromere position. Alternatively, the evolutionary emergence of neocentromeres can be postulated. (+info)
Primary structure of the Herpesvirus ateles genome.
Herpesvirus ateles is an agent indigenous to spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) and causes fulminant lymphomas in various New World primates. Structural and genetic relatedness led to the classification of this virus as a member of the genus Rhadinovirus. It is most closely related to Herpesvirus saimiri. The 108,409-bp light DNA segment of the herpesvirus ateles strain 73 genome has two genes for U-RNA-like transcripts and 73 open reading frames, of which at least 6 show significant homologies to cellular genes (encoding complement control proteins, apoptosis-regulatory proteins, D-type cyclins, interleukin-8 receptors, and enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism). The left terminal region of the light DNA segment bears the putative rhadinovirus oncogene tio. (+info)
Trypanosomes of non-human primates from the National Centre of Primates, Ananindeua, State of Para, brazil.
Trypanosome infections were sought in 46 non-human primates captured principally in Amazonian Brazil. Twenty-two (47.8%) were infected with four Trypanosoma species: T. cruzi, T. minasense, T. devei and T. rangeli. These preliminary results confirmed the high prevalence and diversity of natural infections with trypanosomes in primates from Brazilian Amazon and were the first formal record of simian infections with trypanosomes in the State of Acre. The presence of T. cruzi-like and T. rangeli-like parasites are recorded in four new hosts. (+info)
FISH mapping of the sex-reversal region on human chromosome 9p in two XY females and in primates.
Accumulating evidence suggests that haploinsufficiency of a dosage-sensitive gene(s) in human chromosome 9p24.3 is responsible for the failure of testicular development and feminisation in XY patients with monosomy for 9p. We have used molecular cytogenetic methods to characterise the sex-reversing 9p deletions in two XY females. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with YACs from the critical 9p region containing an evolutionarily conserved sex-determining gene, DMRT1, is a very fast and reliable assay for patient screening. Comparative YAC mapping on great ape and Old and New World monkey chromosomes demonstrated that the critical region was moved from an interstitial position on the ancestral primate chromosome to a very subtelomeric position in chimpanzee and humans by a pericentric inversion(s). Pathological 9p rearrangements may be the consequence of an evolutionary chromosome breakpoint in close proximity to the sex-reversal region. (+info)