Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity.
We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. (+info)
Myelin and collapsin-1 induce motor neuron growth cone collapse through different pathways: inhibition of collapse by opposing mutants of rac1.
Precise growth cone guidance is the consequence of a continuous reorganization of actin filament structures within filopodia and lamellipodia in response to inhibitory and promoting cues. The small GTPases rac1, cdc42, and rhoA are critical for regulating distinct actin structures in non-neuronal cells and presumably in growth cones. Collapse, a retraction of filopodia and lamellipodia, is a typical growth cone behavior on contact with inhibitory cues and is associated with depolymerization and redistribution of actin filaments. We examined whether small GTPases mediate the inhibitory properties of CNS myelin or collapsin-1, a soluble semaphorin, in chick embryonic motor neuron cultures. As demonstrated for collapsin-1, CNS myelin-evoked growth cone collapse was accompanied by a reduction of rhodamine-phalloidin staining most prominent in the growth cone periphery, suggesting actin filament disassembly. Specific mutants of small GTPases were capable of desensitizing growth cones to CNS myelin or collapsin-1. Adenoviral-mediated expression of constitutively active rac1 or rhoA abolished CNS myelin-induced collapse and allowed remarkable neurite extension on a CNS myelin substrate. In contrast, expression of dominant negative rac1 or cdc42 negated collapsin-1-induced growth cone collapse and promoted neurite outgrowth on a collapsin-1 substrate. These findings suggest that small GTPases can modulate the signaling pathways of inhibitory stimuli and, consequently, allow the manipulation of growth cone behavior. However, the fact that opposite mutants of rac1 were effective against different inhibitory stimuli speaks against a universal signaling pathway underlying growth cone collapse. (+info)
Activation of the Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase-2 (ACK-2) by cell adhesion via integrin beta1.
Activated Cdc42-associated kinase-2 (ACK-2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that appears to be a highly specific target for the Rho-related GTP-binding protein Cdc42. In order to understand better how ACK-2 activity is regulated in cells, we have expressed epitope-tagged forms of this tyrosine kinase in COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells. We find that ACK-2 can be activated by cell adhesion in a Cdc42-dependent manner. However, unlike the focal adhesion kinase, which also is activated by cell adhesion, the activation of ACK-2 is F-actin-independent and does not require cell spreading. In addition, overexpression of ACK-2 in COS-7 cells did not result in the stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity but rather activated the c-Jun kinase. Both anti-integrin beta1 antibody and RGD peptides inhibited the activation of ACK-2 by cell adhesion. In addition, ACK-2 was co-immunoprecipitated with integrin beta1. Overall, these findings suggest that ACK-2 interacts with integrin complexes and mediates cell adhesion signals in a Cdc42-dependent manner. (+info)
Rho GTPases control polarity, protrusion, and adhesion during cell movement.
Cell movement is essential during embryogenesis to establish tissue patterns and to drive morphogenetic pathways and in the adult for tissue repair and to direct cells to sites of infection. Animal cells move by crawling and the driving force is derived primarily from the coordinated assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. The small GTPases, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, regulate the organization of actin filaments and we have analyzed their contributions to the movement of primary embryo fibroblasts in an in vitro wound healing assay. Rac is essential for the protrusion of lamellipodia and for forward movement. Cdc42 is required to maintain cell polarity, which includes the localization of lamellipodial activity to the leading edge and the reorientation of the Golgi apparatus in the direction of movement. Rho is required to maintain cell adhesion during movement, but stress fibers and focal adhesions are not required. Finally, Ras regulates focal adhesion and stress fiber turnover and this is essential for cell movement. We conclude that the signal transduction pathways controlled by the four small GTPases, Rho, Rac, Cdc42, and Ras, cooperate to promote cell movement. (+info)
Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by p21-activated kinase.
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are implicated in the cytoskeletal changes induced by the Rho family of guanosine triphosphatases. Cytoskeletal dynamics are primarily modulated by interactions of actin and myosin II that are regulated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-mediated phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chain (MLC). p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) phosphorylates MLCK, resulting in decreased MLCK activity. MLCK activity and MLC phosphorylation were decreased, and cell spreading was inhibited in baby hamster kidney-21 and HeLa cells expressing constitutively active PAK1. These data indicate that MLCK is a target for PAKs and that PAKs may regulate cytoskeletal dynamics by decreasing MLCK activity and MLC phosphorylation. (+info)
Distinct roles for the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rho in endothelial responses to shear stress.
Shear stress, the tangential component of hemodynamic forces, plays an important role in endothelial remodeling. In this study, we investigated the role of Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rho in shear stress-induced signal transduction and cytoskeleton reorganization. Our results showed that shear stress induced the translocation of Cdc42 and Rho from cytosol to membrane. Although both Cdc42 and Rho were involved in the shear stress-induced transcription factor AP-1 acting on the 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate-responsive element (TRE), only Cdc42 was sufficient to activate AP-1/TRE. Dominant-negative mutants of Cdc42 and Rho, as well as recombinant C3 exoenzyme, attenuated the shear stress activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs), suggesting that Cdc42 and Rho regulate the shear stress induction of AP-1/TRE activity through JNKs. Shear stress-induced cell alignment and stress fiber formation were inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of Rho and p160ROCK, but not by the dominant-negative mutant of Cdc42, indicating that the Rho-p160ROCK pathway regulates the cytoskeletal reorganization in response to shear stress. (+info)
Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: two different nucleotide states in one crystal.
The 2.5 A crystal structure of the full length human placental isoform of the Gly12 to Val mutant Cdc42 protein (Cdc42(G12V)) bound to both GDP/Mg2+ and GDPNH2 (guanosine-5'-diphospho-beta-amidate) is reported. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which one has bound GDP/Mg2+, while the other has bound GDPNH2 without a Mg2+ ion. Crystallization of the protein was induced via hydrolysis of the Cdc42 x GppNHp complex by the presence of contaminating alkaline phosphatase activity in combination with the crystallization conditions. This prompted us to compare the binding characteristics of GDPNH2 vs. GDP. The amino group of GDPNH2 drastically reduces the affinity to Cdc42 in comparison with that of GDP, causes the loss of the Mg2+ ion, and apparently also increases the conformational flexibility of the protein as seen in the crystal. Both the switch I and switch II regions are visible in the electron density of the GDP-bound molecule, but not in the molecule bound to GDPNH2. The C-terminus containing the CaaX-motif is partly ordered in both molecules due to an intramolecular disulfide bond formed between Cys105/Cys188 and Cys305/Cys388, respectively. (+info)
The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly.
Although small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been implicated in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, the exact nature of the linkage has remained obscure. We describe a novel mechanism that links one Rho family member, Cdc42, to actin polymerization. N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed Cdc42-interacting protein, is required for Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts. The C terminus of N-WASP binds to the Arp2/3 complex and dramatically stimulates its ability to nucleate actin polymerization. Although full-length N-WASP is less effective, its activity can be greatly enhanced by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate. Therefore, N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex comprise a core mechanism that directly connects signal transduction pathways to the stimulation of actin polymerization. (+info)