Constitutive expression and role of the TNF family ligands in apoptotic killing of tumor cells by human NK cells.
Natural killer cells mediate spontaneously secretory/necrotic killing against rare leukemia cell lines and a nonsecretory/apoptotic killing against a large variety of tumor cell lines. The molecules involved in nonsecretory/apoptotic killing are largely undefined. In the present study, freshly isolated, nonactivated, human NK cells were shown to express TNF, lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha, LT-beta, Fas ligand (L), CD27L, CD30L, OX40L, 4-1BBL, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not CD40L or nerve growth factor. Complementary receptors were demonstrated to be expressed on the cell surface of solid tumor cell lines susceptible to apoptotic killing mediated by NK cells. Individually applied, antagonists of TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL fully inhibited NK cell-mediated apoptotic killing of tumor cells. On the other hand, recombinant TNF, LT-alpha1beta2, or FasL applied individually or as pairs were not cytotoxic. In contrast, a mixture of the three ligands mediated significant apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that human NK cells constitutively express several of the TNF family ligands and induce apoptosis in tumor cells by simultaneous engagement of at least three of these cytotoxic molecules. (+info)
CD30-CD30 ligand interaction in primary cutaneous CD30(+) T-cell lymphomas: A clue to the pathophysiology of clinical regression.
Primary CD30(+) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) represent a spectrum of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) that have been well defined at the clinical, histologic, and immunologic level. This group, which includes 2 main entities (large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis [LyP]) and borderline cases, is characterized by the expression of CD30 antigen by neoplastic large cells at presentation, possible spontaneous regression of the skin lesions, and generally favorable clinical course. Although the functional relevance of CD30 and its natural ligand (CD30L) expression in most cases of NHL is presently undefined, previous studies indicate that CD30L is likely to mediate reduction of proliferation in CD30(+) anaplastic large-cell NHL. No information is currently available concerning the expression of CD30L in primary CD30(+) CTCLs. In this study, we investigated the immunophenotypic and genotypic expression of CD30 and CD30L in different developmental phases of skin lesions (growing v spontaneously regressing). By immunohistochemistry, CD30L expression was detected in regressing lesions only; by molecular analysis, the expression of CD30L was clearly higher in regressing lesions than in growing ones. CD30L, while expressed by some small lymphocytes, was most often coexpressed by CD30(+) neoplastic large cells, as demonstrated by 2-color immunofluorescence and by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Taken together, these data suggest that CD30-CD30L interaction may play a role in the pathobiology of primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders. In particular, CD30L (over)expression might have a major role in the mechanism of self-regression of skin lesions, the most distinctive clinical feature of this cutaneous lymphoma subtype. (+info)
Critical contribution of OX40 ligand to T helper cell type 2 differentiation in experimental leishmaniasis.
Infection of inbred mouse strains with Leishmania major is a well characterized model for analysis of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell development in vivo. In this study, to address the role of costimulatory molecules CD27, CD30, 4-1BB, and OX40, which belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo, we administered monoclonal antibody (mAb) against their ligands, CD70, CD30 ligand (L), 4-1BBL, and OX40L, to mice infected with L. major. Whereas anti-CD70, anti-CD30L, and anti-4-1BBL mAb exhibited no effect in either susceptible BALB/c or resistant C57BL/6 mice, the administration of anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive disease in BALB/c mice. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that OX40 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells and OX40L was expressed on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected BALB/c mice. In vitro stimulation of these CD4(+) T cells showed that anti-OX40L mAb treatment resulted in substantially reduced production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this change in cytokine levels was associated with reduced levels of anti-L. major immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and serum IgE. These results indicate that anti-OX40L mAb abrogated progressive leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice by suppressing the development of Th2 responses, substantiating a critical role of OX40-OX40L interaction in Th2 development in vivo. (+info)
Engagement of CD153 (CD30 ligand) by CD30+ T cells inhibits class switch DNA recombination and antibody production in human IgD+ IgM+ B cells.
CD153 (CD30 ligand) is a member of the TNF ligand/cytokine family expressed on the surface of human B cells. Upon exposure to IL-4, a critical Ig class switch-inducing cytokine, Ag-activated T cells express CD30, the CD153 receptor. The observation that dysregulated IgG, IgA, and/or IgE production is often associated with up-regulation of T cell CD30 prompted us to test the hypothesis that engagement of B cell CD153 by T cell CD30 modulates Ig class switching. In this study, we show that IgD+ IgM+ B cells up-regulate CD153 in the presence of CD154 (CD40 ligand), IL-4, and B cell Ag receptor engagement. In these cells, CD153 engagement by an agonistic anti-CD153 mAb or T cell CD30 inhibits S mu-->Sgamma, Smu-->Salpha, and S mu-->Sepsilon class switch DNA recombination (CSR). This inhibition is associated with decreased TNFR-associated factor-2 binding to CD40, decreased NF-kappaB binding to the CD40-responsive element of the Cgamma3 promoter, decreased Igamma3-Cgamma3 germline gene transcription, and decreased expression of Ku70, Ku80, DNA protein kinase, switch-associated protein-70, and Msh2 CSR-associated transcripts. In addition, CD153 engagement inhibits IgG, IgA, and IgE production, and this effect is associated with reduced levels of B lymphocyte maturation protein-1 transcripts, and increased binding of B cell-specific activation protein to the Ig 3' enhancer. These findings suggest that CD30+ T cells modulate CSR as well as IgG, IgA, and IgE production by inducing reverse signaling through B cell CD153. (+info)
CD30L up-regulates CD30 and IL-4 expression by T cells.
CD30L is frequently expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Its presence is associated with the co-expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor and with the expansion of specific T-helper 2 (Th2) cell subsets producing IL-4 and expressing CD30. Recombinant CD30L-bearing cells up-regulated the expression of surface CD30 and increased the production of IL-4 and soluble (s) CD30 by co-cultured T cells. These findings were confirmed with AML blasts expressing surface CD30L, where blocking anti-CD30 antibodies completely abolished the release of sCD30 and reduced the production of IL-4. Our data indicates a direct role of CD30L(+) neoplastic cells in driving the immune response toward a Th2-polarized non-protective state. (+info)
Human angiogenin fused to human CD30 ligand (Ang-CD30L) exhibits specific cytotoxicity against CD30-positive lymphoma.
A number of different immunotoxins composed of cell-specific targeting structures coupled to plant or bacterial toxins have increasingly been evaluated for immunotherapy. Because these foreign proteins are highly immunogenic in humans, we have developed a new CD30 ligand-based fusion toxin (Ang-CD30L) using the human RNase angiogenin. The completely human fusion gene was inserted into a pET-based expression plasmid. Transformed Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) were grown under osmotic stress conditions in the presence of compatible solutes. After isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside induction, the M(r) 37,000 His(10)-tagged Ang-CD30L was directed into the periplasmic space and functionally purified by a combination of metal ion affinity followed by enterokinase cleavage of the His(10)-Tag and molecular size chromatography. The characteristics of the recombinant protein were assessed by ELISA, flow cytometry, and toxicity assays showing specific activity against CD30(+) Hodgkin-derived cells. Specific binding activity of Ang-CD30L was verified by competition with anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody Ki-4 and commercially available CD30L-CD8 chimeric protein. Ang-CD30L showed RNase activity in vitro. The human recombinant immunotoxin showed significant toxicity toward several CD30-positive cell lines (HDLM-2, L1236, KM-H2, and L540Cy) and exhibited highest cytotoxicity against L540 cells (IC(50) = 8 ng/ml) as determined by cell proliferation assays. CD30 specificity was confirmed by competitive toxicity assays. This is the first report on the specific cytotoxicity of a recombinant completely human fusion toxin with possibly largely reduced immunogenicity for the treatment of CD30-positive malignancies. (+info)
Association study between CD30 and CD30 ligand genes and type 1 diabetes in the Japanese population.
CD30-CD30 ligand (CD30L) signal transduction appears to protect against autoimmune diabetes by preventing expansion of autoreactive T cells and suppressing Th1-cytokine response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CD30 or CD30L genes serve as a novel susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes in humans. We screened CD30 and CD30L genes for polymorphisms in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. Then, association studies were performed between each of the identified polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes. Direct-sequencing analysis of the CD30 and CD30L genes revealed four polymorphisms: one in the CD30 gene (-201G/A from the transcription start site), and three in the CD30L gene [CA repeat in the promoter, 276G/A in the exon 3, -73T/C in the intron 3 (IVS3 -73T/C)]. Association studies revealed no association between the CD30 and CD30L genes and type 1 diabetes in the whole population. In the female and male subpopulations, however, the frequency of (CA)(9) allele of the CD30L gene promoter or T allele of IVS3 -73T/C polymorphism in the CD30L gene was slightly higher in female patients with type 1 diabetes than that in control females. In conclusion, we could not find significant association between CD30 or CD30L genes and type 1 diabetes, but (CA)(9) allele in the promotor or T allele of -73T/C in intron 3 in CD30L gene might play a minor role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, only in the Japanese female population. (+info)
Inhibition of type 1 cytokine-mediated inflammation by a soluble CD30 homologue encoded by ectromelia (mousepox) virus.
CD30 is up-regulated in several human diseases and viral infections but its role in immune regulation is poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of a functional soluble CD30 homologue, viral CD30 (vCD30), encoded by ectromelia (mousepox) virus, a poxvirus that causes a severe disease related to human smallpox. We show that vCD30 is a 12-kD secreted protein that not only binds CD30L with high affinity and prevents its interaction with CD30, but it also induces reverse signaling in cells expressing CD30L. vCD30 blocked the generation of interferon gamma-producing cells in vitro and was a potent inhibitor of T helper cell (Th)1- but not Th2-mediated inflammation in vivo. The finding of a CD30 homologue encoded by ectromelia virus suggests a role for CD30 in antiviral defense. Characterization of the immunological properties of vCD30 has uncovered a role of CD30-CD30L interactions in the generation of inflammatory responses. (+info)