The role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in IL-1 beta transcription.
Several reports have shown that bicyclic imidazoles, specific inhibitors of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), block cytokine synthesis at the translational level. In this study, we examined the role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of the IL-1beta cytokine gene in monocytic cell lines using the bicyclic imidazole SB203580. Addition of SB203580 30 min before stimulation of monocytes with LPS inhibited IL-1beta protein and steady state message in a dose-dependent manner in both RAW264.7 and J774 cell lines. The loss of IL-1beta message was due mainly to inhibition of transcription, since nuclear run-off analysis showed an approximately 80% decrease in specific IL-1 RNA synthesis. In contrast, SB203580 had no effect on the synthesis of TNF-alpha message. LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK activity in the RAW264.7 cells was blocked by SB203580, as measured by the inhibition of MAPKAP2 kinase activity, a downstream target of the p38 MAPK. CCAATT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)/NFIL-6-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter activity was sensitive to SB203580, indicating that C/EBP/NFIL-6 transcription factor(s) are also targets of p38 MAPK. In contrast, transfected CAT constructs containing NF-kappaB elements were only partially inhibited (approximately 35%) at the highest concentration of SB203580 after LPS stimulation. As measured by EMSA, LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB activation was not affected by SB203580. Overall, the results demonstrate, for the first time, a role for p38 MAPK in IL-1beta transcription by acting through C/EBP/NFIL-6 transcription factors. (+info)
Leukemia inhibitory factor and its receptor promote adipocyte differentiation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.
Extracellular factors and intracellular signaling pathways involved in early events of adipocyte differentiation are poorly defined. It is shown herein that expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and LIF receptor is developmentally regulated during adipocyte differentiation. Preadipocytes secrete bioactive LIF, and an antagonist of LIF receptor inhibits adipogenesis. Genetically modified embryonic stem (ES) cells combined with culture conditions to commit stem cells into the adipocyte lineage were used to examine the requirement of LIF receptor during in vitro development of adipose cells. The capacity of embryoid bodies derived from lifr(-/-) ES cells to undergo adipocyte differentiation is dramatically reduced. LIF addition stimulates adipocyte differentiation of Ob1771 and 3T3-F442A preadipocytes and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 ligand-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Expression of the early adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta is rapidly stimulated following exposure of preadipose cells to LIF. The selective inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, i.e. PD98059 and U0126, inhibit LIF-induced C/EBP gene expression and prevent adipocyte differentiation induced by LIF. These results are in favor of a model that implicates stimulation of LIF receptor in the commitment of preadipocytes to undergo terminal differentiation by controlling the early expression of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta genes via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (+info)
Interleukin (IL)-8 is an important mediator of acute lung injury. Hyperoxia induces IL-8 production in some cell types, but its effect on IL-8 gene expression in respiratory epithelium is not well described. In addition, IL-8 gene expression resulting from the combined effects of hyperoxia and proinflammatory cytokines has not been well characterized. We treated cultured respiratory epithelial-like cells (A549 cells) with hyperoxia alone, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha alone, or the combination of TNF-alpha and hyperoxia and evaluated IL-8 gene expression. Hyperoxia alone had a minimal effect on IL-8 gene expression, and TNF-alpha alone increased IL-8 gene expression in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, the combination of TNF-alpha and hyperoxia synergistically increased IL-8 gene expression as measured by ELISA (TNF-alpha alone for 24 h = 769 +/- 89 pg/ml vs. hyperoxia + TNF-alpha for 24 h = 1, 189 +/- 89 pg/ml) and Northern blot analyses. Experiments involving IL-8 promoter-reporter assays, electromobility shift assays, and Western blot analyses demonstrated that hyperoxia augmented TNF-alpha-mediated activation of the IL-8 promoter by a nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-dependent mechanism and increased the duration of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation after concomitant treatment with TNF-alpha. Additional reporter gene assays demonstrated, however, that increased activation of NF-kappaB does not fully account for the synergistic effect of hyperoxia and that the NF-IL-6 site in the IL-8 promoter is also required for the synergistic effect of hyperoxia. We conclude that hyperoxia alone has a minimal effect on IL-8 gene expression but synergistically increases IL-8 gene expression in the presence of TNF-alpha by a mechanism involving cooperative interaction between the transcription factors NF-kappaB and NF-IL-6. (+info)
Expression and self-regulatory function of cardiac interleukin-6 during endotoxemia.
Interleukin (IL)-6 reportedly has negative inotropic and hypertrophic effects on the heart. Here, we describe endotoxin-induced IL-6 in the heart that has not previously been well characterized. An intraperitoneal injection of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide into C57BL/6 mice induced IL-6 mRNA in the heart more strongly than in any other tissue examined. Induction of mRNA for two proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, occurred rapidly before the induction of IL-6 mRNA and protein. Although stimulation of isolated rat neonatal myocardial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced IL-6 mRNA in vitro, nonmyocardial heart cells produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA upon stimulation with IL-1beta. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses localized the IL-6 expression primarily in nonmyocardial cells in vivo. Endotoxin-induced expression of cardiac IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was augmented in IL-6-deficient mice compared with control mice. Thus cardiac IL-6, expressed mainly by nonmyocardial cells via IL-1beta action during endotoxemia, is likely to suppress expression of proinflammatory mediators and to regulate itself via a negative feedback mechanism. (+info)
Critical role of C/EBPdelta and C/EBPbeta factors in the stimulation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene transcription by interleukin-1beta in articular chondrocytes.
The activity of the [-831; +103] promoter of the human cyclooxygenase-2 gene in cultured rabbit chondrocytes is stimulated 2.9 +/- 0.3-fold by interleukin-1beta and this stimulation depends on [-132; -124] C/EBP binding-and [-223; -214] NF-kappaB binding-sites. The C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta factors bind to the [-132; -124] sequence. The [-61; -53] sequence is also recognized by C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta as well as USF. Mutation of the whole [-61; -53] sequence abolished the stimulation of transcription but single mutations of the C/EBP or USF site did not alter the activity of the promoter, suggesting that the factors bound to the proximal [-61; -53] sequence interact with different members of the general transcription machinery. The [-223; -214] site binds only the p50/p50 homodimer and a non-rel-related protein, but not the transcriptionally active heterodimer p50/p65. The p50/p50 homodimer could interact with the C/EBP family members bound to the [-132; -124] sequence for full stimulation of the COX-2 transcription by interleukin-1beta in chondrocytes. By contrast, the [-448; -449] sequence binds with a low affinity both the p50/p50 homodimeric and p50/p65 heterodimeric forms of NF-kappaB but has no role in the regulation of the human COX-2 promoter in chondrocytes. (+info)
Protein kinase A-dependent stimulation of rat type II secreted phospholipase A(2) gene transcription involves C/EBP-beta and -delta in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Type II secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) releases precursors of important inflammatory lipid mediators from phospholipids. Some observations have indicated that the sPLA(2), which has been implicated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, contributes to atherosclerosis in the arterial wall. sPLA(2) was not detected in control vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment of VSMC with agents that increase intracellular cAMP (eg, forskolin, dibutyryl [db]-cAMP) resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in sPLA(2) gene expression. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed a marked dose-dependent inhibition of forskolin-induced mRNA by protein kinase A inhibitor. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of nuclear proteins from forskolin-treated and db-cAMP-treated VSMC with C/EBP consensus oligonucleotides and C/EBP oligonucleotides from the rat promoter revealed greater binding than in control VSMC. Incubation of VSMC with H89, a specific protein kinase inhibitor, also blocked the binding of nuclear C/EBP to the C/EBP site of the rat promoter induced by db-cAMP and forskolin. Binding was unchanged with the use of CRE consensus oligonucleotides. Antibodies revealed the specific formation of C/EBP/DNA complexes, the majority of which were supershifted by C/EBP-ss and -delta antibodies. Functional activation of C/EBP was confirmed by a luciferase reporter gene assay. A construct comprising 4 tandem repeat copies of the C/EBP element from the rat sPLA(2) promoter linked to luciferase was transcriptionally activated in VSMC by cotransfection with expression vector for the protein kinase A catalytic subunit. It was also significantly activated in transfected VSMC treated by forskolin or db-cAMP. H89 inhibited this activations. We therefore conclude that the increases in sPLA(2) mRNA and enzyme activity produced by cAMP-elevating agents is controlled by a mechanism involving nuclear C/EBP-ss and -delta acting through a protein kinase A signaling pathway. (+info)
Expression of mammalian defensin genes.
Antimicrobial peptides are a prevalent mechanism of host defense found throughout nature. In mammals, defensins are among the most abundant of these broad-spectrum antibiotics, and are expressed in epithelial and hematopoietic cells. The defensin peptides are especially abundant in neutrophils; however, gene expression is limited to the promyelocyte stage. In epithelial cells, defensin genes are found as both constitutively expressed and inducible. Induction has been observed in vitro by stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide as well as inflammatory mediators. In vivo, up-regulation of several defensin genes occurs in both infectious and inflammatory states. Gene regulation occurs via signal transduction pathways common to other innate immune responses, utilizing transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and NF interleukin-6. Together, the data suggest a broad-based innate host defense whereby potent antimicrobial peptides are present to prevent initial colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, the recognition of bacteria coupled with a nascent inflammatory response can bolster this defense by a coordinated up-regulation of the peptides. (+info)
Fornix-dependent induction of hippocampal CCAAT enhancer-binding protein [beta] and [delta] Co-localizes with phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein and accompanies long-term memory consolidation.
The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription regulator essential for long-term memory formation. It is not known, however, whether the molecular events downstream of CREB activation are also conserved. An early, cAMP-dependent event necessary for learning-related long-term synaptic plasticity in the invertebrate Aplysia californica is the induction of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP). Here we show that two homologs in the rat, C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta, are induced at discrete times after inhibitory avoidance learning and co-localize with phosphorylated CREB in the hippocampus. This induction is blocked by fornix lesions, which are known to disrupt activation of CREB in the hippocampus and to impair memory consolidation. These results indicate that C/EBPs are evolutionarily conserved components of the CREB-dependent gene cascade activated in long-term memory. (+info)