Eucaryotic initiation factor 4B controls eIF3-mediated ribosomal entry of viral reinitiation factor. (65/230)

The cauliflower mosaic virus reinitiation factor TAV interacts with host translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and the 60S ribosomal subunit to accomplish translation of polycistronic mRNAs. Interaction between TAV and eIF3g is critical for the reinitiation process. Here, we show that eIF4B can preclude formation of the TAV/eIF3 complex via competition with TAV for eIF3g binding; indeed, the eIF4B- and TAV-binding sites on eIF3g overlap. Our data indicate that eIF4B interferes with TAV/eIF3/40S ribosome complex formation during the first initiation event. Consequently, overexpression of TAV in plant protoplasts affects only second initiation events. Transient overexpression of eIF4B in plant protoplasts specifically inhibits TAV-mediated reinitiation of a second ORF. These data suggest that TAV enters the host translation machinery at the eIF4B removal step to stabilize eIF3 on the translating ribosome, thereby allowing translation of polycistronic viral RNA.  (+info)

Structure of the conserved domain of ANAC, a member of the NAC family of transcription factors. (66/230)

The structure of the DNA-binding NAC domain of Arabidopsis ANAC (abscisic-acid-responsive NAC) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.9A resolution (Protein Data Bank codes 1UT4 and 1UT7). This is the first structure determined for a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcriptional regulators. NAC proteins are characterized by their conserved N-terminal NAC domains that can bind both DNA and other proteins. NAC proteins are involved in developmental processes, including formation of the shoot apical meristem, floral organs and lateral shoots, as well as in plant hormonal control and defence. The NAC domain does not possess a classical helix-turn-helix motif; instead it reveals a new transcription factor fold consisting of a twisted beta-sheet surrounded by a few helical elements. The functional dimer formed by the NAC domain was identified in the structure, which will serve as a structural template for understanding NAC protein function at the molecular level.  (+info)

The avirulence domain of Cauliflower mosaic virus transactivator/viroplasmin is a determinant of viral virulence in susceptible hosts. (67/230)

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) transactivator/viroplasmin (Tav) is a multifunctional protein essential for basic replication of CaMV. It also plays a role in viral pathogenesis in crucifer and solanaceous host plants. Deletion mutagenesis revealed that N- and C-terminal parts of Tav are not essential for CaMV replication in transfected protoplasts. Two deletion mutants having only minimal defects in basic replication were infectious in turnips but only with highly attenuated virulence. This was shown to be due to delayed virus spread within the inoculated leaves and to the upper leaves. Unlike the wild-type virus, the mutant viruses successfully spread locally without inducing a host defense response in inoculated Datura stramonium leaves, but did not spread systemically. These results provide the first evidence that a Tav domain required for avirulence function in solanaceous plants is not essential for CaMV infectivity but has a role in viral virulence in susceptible hosts.  (+info)

Localization of the N-terminal domain of cauliflower mosaic virus coat protein precursor. (68/230)

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame (ORF) IV encodes a coat protein precursor (pre-CP) harboring an N-terminal extension that is cleaved off by the CaMV-encoded protease. In transfected cells, pre-CP is present in the cytoplasm, while the processed form (p44) of CP is targeted to the nucleus, suggesting that the N-terminal extension might be involved in keeping the pre-CP in the cytoplasm for viral assembly. This study reports for the first time the intracellular localization of the N-terminal extension during CaMV infection in Brassica rapa. Immunogold-labeling electron microscopy using polyclonal antibodies directed to the N-terminal extension of the pre-CP revealed that this region is closely associated with viral particles present in small aggregates, which we called small bodies, adjacent to the main inclusion bodies typical of CaMV infection. Based on these results, we propose a model for viral assembly of CaMV.  (+info)

Splicing of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA serves to downregulate a toxic gene product. (69/230)

Alternative splicing usually leads to an increase in the number of gene products that can be derived from a single transcript. Here, a different and novel use of alternative splicing--as a means to control the amount of a potentially toxic gene product in the plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)--is reported. About 70 % of the CaMV 35S RNA, which serves as a substrate for both reverse transcription and polycistronic mRNA, is spliced into four additional RNA species. Splicing occurs between four donor sites--one in the 5' untranslated region and three within open reading frame (ORF) I--and one unique acceptor site at position 1508 in ORF II. A previous study revealed that the acceptor site is vital for CaMV infectivity and expression of ORFs III and IV from one of the spliced RNA species suggested that splicing may facilitate expression of downstream CaMV ORFs. However, it is shown here that deleting the splice acceptor site and replacing ORF II with a cargo ORF that lacks splice acceptor sites does not interfere with virus proliferation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that whenever P2 cannot accumulate in infected tissues, the splice acceptor site at position 1508 is no longer vital and has little effect on virus replication. This suggests that the vital role of splicing in CaMV is regulation of P2 expression and that P2 exhibits biological properties that, whilst indispensable for virus-vector interactions, can block in planta virus infection if this regulation is abolished.  (+info)

Silencing in Arabidopsis T-DNA transformants: the predominant role of a gene-specific RNA sensing mechanism versus position effects. (70/230)

Pronounced variability of transgene expression and transgene silencing are commonly observed among independent plant lines transformed with the same construct. Single-copy T-DNA lines harboring reporter genes of various kind and number under the control of a strong promoter were established in Arabidopsis thaliana for a comprehensive analysis of transgene expression. Characterization of 132 independent transgenic lines revealed no case of silencing as a result of site of T-DNA integration. Below a certain number of identical transgenes in the genome, gene copy number and expression were positively correlated. Expression was high, stable over all generations analyzed, and of a comparable level among independent lines harboring the same copy number of a particular transgene. Conversely, RNA silencing was triggered if the transcript level of a transgene surpassed a gene-specific threshold. Transcript level-mediated silencing effectively accounts for the pronounced transgene expression variability seen among transformants. It is proposed that the RNA sensing mechanism described is a genome surveillance system that eliminates RNA corresponding to excessively transcribed genes, including transgenes, and so plays an important role in genome defense.  (+info)

The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter extends into the transcribed region. (71/230)

A 60-nucleotide region (S1) downstream of the transcription start site of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA can enhance gene expression. By using transient expression assays with plant protoplasts, this activity was shown to be at least partially due to the effect of transcriptional enhancers within this region. We identify sequence motifs with enhancer function, which are normally masked by the powerful upstream enhancers of the 35S promoter. A repeated CT-rich motif is involved both in enhancer function and in interaction with plant nuclear proteins. The S1 region can also enhance expression from heterologous promoters.  (+info)

P6 protein of Cauliflower mosaic virus, a translation reinitiator, interacts with ribosomal protein L13 from Arabidopsis thaliana. (72/230)

The P6 protein of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) transactivates translation of the CaMV 35S polycistronic pregenomic RNA and its spliced versions, and thus allows synthesis of a complete set of viral proteins. Previous studies have shown that P6 interacts with plant L18 and L24 ribosomal proteins and initiation factor eIF3, and it has been proposed that these interactions are involved in the reinitiation of translation of polycistronic viral RNAs. This study characterizes a novel cellular partner of P6, the ribosomal protein L13 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Far-Western assays performed with several P6 deletion mutants have shown that L13 interacts with the miniTAV of P6, which represents the minimal domain for transactivation, suggesting that the P6-L13 interaction might also be involved in this process. L13 and L18 were found to bind to the same region within the miniTAV. Competition assays between L18 and L13 for binding to miniTAV suggest that interactions between P6 and these ribosomal proteins involve separate P6 molecules, and/or occur at different stages of translation or in the context of another function also mediated by P6.  (+info)