Cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a report of six cases.
Six patients with ankylosing spondylitis and features of a cauda equina syndrome are described. The myelographic findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of the disorder and its natural history. Present experience suggests that the cauda equina syndrome is a more common complication of ankylosing spondylitis than is usually thought. (+info)
MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease.
We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies. (+info)
Lumbar spinal subdural hematoma following craniotomy--case report.
A 52-year-old female complained of lumbago and weakness in the lower extremities 6 days after craniotomy for clipping an aneurysm. Neurological examination revealed symptoms consistent with lumbosacral cauda equina compression. The symptoms affecting the lower extremities spontaneously disappeared within 3 days. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 10 days after the operation demonstrated a lumbar spinal subdural hematoma (SSH). She had no risk factor for bleeding at this site, the symptoms appeared after she began to walk, and MR imaging suggested the SSH was subacute. Therefore, the SSH was probably due to downward movement of blood from the cranial subdural space under the influence of gravity. SSH as a complication of cranial surgery is rare, but should be considered if a patient develops symptoms consistent with a lumbar SSH after craniotomy. (+info)
Sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis. A complication of intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis.
Reported complications of intrathecal steroid therapy include aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and arachnoiditis. We report a case of sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis complicating the attempted intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis. The lesion is characterised by concentric laminar proliferation of neomembranes within the subdural space of the entire spinal cord and cauda equina, resulting from repeated episodes of injury and repair to the spinal dura mater by Depo-Medrol. There is clinical and laboratory evidence that Depo-Medrol produces meningeal irritation and that the vehicle is the necrotising fraction. (+info)
Intravascular lymphomatosis presenting as an ascending cauda equina: conus medullaris syndrome: remission after biweekly CHOP therapy.
A 63 year old man developed dysaesthesia in the legs followed by a subacute ascending flaccid paraparesis with sacral sensory and autonomic involvement. Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) was favoured by the presence of low grade fever and raised serum C reactive protein, CSF pleocytosis, raised lymphoma markers (serum LDH, soluble IL-2 receptor), and steroid responsiveness. Only muscle, among several organ biopsies, confirmed IVL. A cytogenetic study of the bone marrow showed chromosome 6 monosomy, as previously reported. The monosomy of chromosome 19, which bears the intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, newly found in this case, may be related to the unique tumour embolisation of IVL. The CHOP regimen (six courses in 12 weeks) using granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) led to gradual resolution of myeloradiculopathy and laboratory supported remission lasting for more than 13 months. The biweekly CHOP with G-CSF support may be a choice of chemotherapy in averting rapidly fatal IVL. (+info)
Nutritional supply to the cauda equina in lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis in rats.
Laminectomy-induced cauda equina adhesion has been proved by rat experiments and postoperative serial MRI in humans. A degenerative change of the cauda equina has been proved when cauda equina adhesion has been prolonged. Since it has not been reported how the nutritional supply is changed in such a condition, we evaluated the glucose supply to the adhered cauda equina in rats. Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: the control group which received no operation, the laminectomy group which underwent L5-L6 laminectomy only, and the koalin group which received 5 mg of kaolin on the dorsal extradural space following L5-L6 laminectomy. Based on 3H-methyl-glucose uptake study, we analyzed (1) glucose transport from the intraneural vessels to the nerve tissue, and (2) glucose transport from the cerebrospinal fluid to the nerve tissue. We evaluated the relation between the severity of cauda equina adhesion and 3H uptake into the cauda equina. Cauda equina adhesion was observed in 2 of 12 rats in the control group, in 3 of 12 rats in the laminectomy group, and in 18 of 20 rats in the kaolin group. In the 3H-methyl-glucose uptake study, at 12 weeks the glucose transport to the cauda equina from the vessels increased by 44%, and that from the cerebrospinal fluid decreased by 64% in the kaolin group compared with the control group. In the condition of complete cauda equina adhesion, the glucose transport to the cauda equina from the vessels increased by 53% and that from the cerebrospinal fluid remarkably decreased by 72% compared with the normal cauda equina. Considering the greater nutritional importance of the cerebrospinal fluid in the cauda equina, it is most likely that the impairment of nutritional supply to adhered cauda equina may lead to eventual neural degeneration. (+info)
Predictors of outcome in cauda equina syndrome.
This retrospective review examined the cause, level of pathology, onset of symptoms, time taken to treatment, and outcome of 19 patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES). The minimum time to follow up was 22 months. Logistical regression analysis was used to determine how these factors influenced the eventual outcome. Out of 19 patients, 14 had satisfactory recovery at 2 years post-decompression; 5 patients were left with some residual dysfunction. The mean time to decompression in the group with a satisfactory outcome was 14 h (range 6-24 h) whilst that of the group with the poor outcome was 30 h (range 20-72 h). There was a clear correlation between delayed decompression and a poor outcome (P = 0.023). Saddle hypoaesthesia was evident in all patients. In addition complete perineal anaesthesia was evident in 7/19 patients, 5 of whom developed a poor outcome. Bladder dysfunction was observed in 19/19 patients, with 12/19 regarded as having significant impairment. Of the five patients identified as having a poor overall outcome, all five presented with a significant sphincter disturbance and 4/5 were left with residual sphincter dysfunction. There was a clear correlation between the presence of complete perineal anaesthesia and significant sphincter dysfunction as both univariate and multivariate predictors of a poor overall outcome. The association between a slower onset of CES and a more favourable outcome did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.052). No correlation could be found between initial motor function loss, bilateral sciatica, level or cause of injury as predictors of a poor outcome (P>0.05). CES can be diagnosed early by judicious physical examination, with particular attention to perineal sensation and a history of urinary dysfunction. The most important factors identified in this series as predictors of a favourable outcome in CES were early diagnosis and early decompression. (+info)
The appearance on MRI of vertebrae in acute compression of the spinal cord due to metastases.
We studied MR images of the spine in a consecutive series of 100 patients with acute compression of the spinal cord due to metastases. All patients had documented neurological deficit and histologically proven carcinoma. MRI was used to localise bony metastatic involvement and soft-tissue impingement of the cord. A systematic method of documenting metastatic involvement is described. A total of 43 patients had compression at multiple levels; 160 vertebral levels were studied. In 120 vertebrae (75%), anterior, lateral and posterior bony elements were involved. Soft-tissue impingement of the spinal cord often involved more than one quadrant of its circumference. In 69 vertebrae (43%) there was concomitant anterior and posterior compression. Isolated involvement of a vertebral body was observed in only six vertebrae (3.8%). We have shown that in most cases of acute compression of the spinal cord due to metastases there is coexisting involvement of both anterior and posterior structures. (+info)