Urethral response to latex and Silastic catheters.
The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters. (+info)
Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated. (+info)
Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review.
The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised. (+info)
Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up.
Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE. (+info)
Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution.
BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement. (+info)
Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option.
PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed. (+info)
A method for collecting right coronary venous blood samples from conscious dogs.
This report describes for the first time a technique to collect right coronary venous blood samples from conscious dogs. Catheters, prepared from Micro-Renathane tubing, were surgically implanted in right ventricular superficial veins of three anesthetized dogs. Also implanted were an arterial catheter, a right coronary flow transducer, and a right coronary artery constrictor. The coronary catheter was introduced at a venous bifurcation so that its side holes were positioned above the bifurcation; both ends of the catheter were exteriorized. Heparinized saline was continuously infused through the venous catheter by a battery-powered pump. The dogs were maintained for 10-13 days after surgery, and all catheters remained patent. Multiple right coronary venous samples were collected from each dog. These samples were analyzed for venous oxygen tension (PvO2) under baseline conditions, with right coronary pressure reduced to 50 mmHg, and during the reactive hyperemia after release of the right coronary artery constriction. PvO2 was 27.7 +/- 1.0 mmHg at baseline, 23.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg during coronary artery constriction, and 34.3 +/- 1.5 mmHg during reactive hyperemia. These data and the position of the catheter at autopsy demonstrated that coronary venous blood had been sampled. (+info)
Volume flow measurement in hemodialysis shunts using time-domain correlation.
Volume flow was measured in 58 hemodialysis shunts (32 grafts and 26 radial fistulas) using the color velocity imaging-quantification method. This method is based on time-domain correlation for velocity calculation and integration of time-varying velocity profiles generated by M-mode sampling. Measurements were made in the brachial artery to estimate radial fistula flow or directly in the grafts. Intraoperator reproducibility was 14.9% for fistulas and 11.6% for grafts. Flow rate was significantly lower in abnormal shunts associated with a functional disorder or a morphologic complication (808 ml/min +/- 484) than in shunts associated with no abnormalities (1401 ml/min +/- 562). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that a flow rate of 900 ml/min for fistulas and 1300 ml/min for grafts provided 81% and 79% sensitivity and 79% and 67% specificity, respectively. A functional disorder or a morphologic complication was associated with all fistulas and grafts in which flow rates were lower than 500 ml/min and 800 ml/min, respectively. (+info)