Central venous catheter exchange by guidewire for treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy.
Current guidelines for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) advise against central venous catheter (CVC) exchange because of the potential risk of prolonging infection. However, there are no consistent data proving this recommendation. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of CVC exchange by guidewire for the treatment of CRB in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. CVC exchange was considered when fever and positive blood cultures persisted after 2 days of adequate antimicrobial therapy and no potential source of bacteraemia other than CVC could be identified. The guidewire exchange was preceded and followed by a slow infusion of adequate antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia was confirmed as catheter-related by demonstrating concordance between isolates from the tip and blood cultures by pulsed-field electrophoresis of genomic DNA. This procedure was performed in 19 episodes of bacteraemia during a 1-year period. Fourteen episodes (74%) were catheter-related and 71% of these were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Guidewire replacement was accomplished uneventfully 4 days after development of sepsis (range 3-6). In all cases, clinical signs of sepsis disappeared in less than 24 h after replacement. Definitive catheter withdrawal was carried out a median of 16 days (range 3-42) after guidewire exchange; in all cases, the tip culture was negative. We conclude that CVC replacement by guidewire under adequate antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option for the treatment of CRB when antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful. (+info)
Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option.
PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed. (+info)
Evidence for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci colonizing intravascular devices.
Nasal surveillance cultures were performed for 54 patients exhibiting >/=10(3) CFU of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci per ml in central venous catheter (CVC) rinse cultures over a 6-month period. Forty-two of the nasal cultures yielded growth of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 33 of the 42 cultures contained organisms that belonged to the same species as the CVC isolates. Of the 33 same-species isolates, 20 appeared to be identical strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. These data suggest that measures should be taken to reduce cross-contamination between the respiratory tract and intravascular devices. However, the potential interest in detecting methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus carriage in high-risk patients is hampered by the lack of sensitivity of nasal surveillance cultures. (+info)
Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium.
A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present Mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon. (+info)
Bloodstream infections can develop late (after day 100) and/or in the absence of neutropenia in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
We retrospectively evaluated the incidence and time from transplantation of bloodstream infections occurring in children receiving bone marrow transplant (BMT) at G Gaslini Children's Hospital between September 1984 and December 1997. During this period the incidence was 35% after allogeneic and 26% after autologous BMT (P=0.08). Among these episodes, 38% after allogeneic BMT and 90% after autologous BMT were detected in the presence of neutropenia within the first 30 days from reinfusion (P < 0.001). Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections was 40% after allogeneic and 8% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001). Bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia were 55% after allogeneic BMT vs 10% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001) and occurred later after reinfusion (mean 199 vs 41 days, P <0.001). Among the episodes occurring after allogeneic BMT and in the absence of neutropenia, 61% were related to the presence of a central venous catheter, 15% were related to the presence of GVHD, but 23% were not associated with any of major risk factors for infection. Finally, 38% of episodes following allogeneic BMT were detected after day 100 vs 1% after autologous BMT. We concluded that patients receiving allogeneic BMT experience a high incidence of bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia and that a significant proportion of these episodes is not clearly associated with well known risk factors such as GVHD or central venous catheters. Moreover, many episodes develop a long time after the transplantation procedure. Therefore, any febrile episode following allogeneic BMT even late and/or in the absence of neutropenia should be intensively managed. (+info)
Short-term continuous infusion thrombolytic therapy for occluded central nervous venous dialysis catheters.
The necessity of maintaining a strict schedule of dialysis treatments in patients with chronic renal failure dictates that occluded access catheters be restored to full function in a timely and cost-effective manner. The records of 22 consecutive patients receiving outpatient treatment for occluded hemodialysis catheters at Osteopathic Medical Center of Texas were reviewed by the authors. Each patient had 100,000 units of urokinase in 50 ml normal saline instilled over 30 minutes through the occluded catheter. In most instances the dose was divided to allow 35 ml to the proximal port and 15 ml to the distal port. The maximum sustained blood flow rate on dialysis was recorded for each patient. The mean maximum sustained blood flow rate improved from 150 ml/min +/- 79 ml to 261 ml/min +/- 62 ml. Following infusion, improvement was obtained in 19 of 22 patients, with 14 catheters delivering blood flow greater than 250 ml/min. The total cost per treatment was $316. No adverse events were experienced. Thrombotic occlusion of extended use hemodialysis catheters can be rapidly and safely relieved in a cost-effective manner with little delay in scheduled dialysis treatments. (+info)
Defibrillation-guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation secondary to an atrial focus.
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate a potential focal source of atrial fibrillation (AF) by unmasking spontaneous early reinitiation of AF after transvenous atrial defibrillation (TADF), and to describe a method of using repeated TADF to map and ablate the focus. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation may develop secondary to a rapidly discharging atrial focus that the atria cannot follow synchronously, with suppression of the focus once AF establishes. Focus mapping and radiofrequency (RF) ablation may be curative but is limited if the patient is in AF or if the focus is quiescent. Early reinitiation of AF has been observed following defibrillation, which might have a focal mechanism. METHODS: We performed TADF in patients with drug-refractory lone AF using electrodes in the right atrium (RA) and the coronary sinus. When reproducible early reinitiation of AF within 2 min after TADF was observed that exhibited a potential focal mechanism, both mapping and RF ablation were performed to suppress AF reinitiation. Clinical and ambulatory ECG monitoring was used to assess AF recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 44 lone AF patients (40 men, 4 women; 32 persistent, 12 paroxysmal AF) with a mean age of 58+/-13 years underwent TADF. Sixteen patients had early reinitiation of AF after TADF, nine (20%; 5 paroxysmal) exhibited a pattern of focal reinitiation. Earliest atrial activation was mapped to the right superior (n = 4) and the left superior (n = 3) pulmonary vein, just inside the orifice, in the seven patients who underwent further study. At the onset of AF reinitiation, the site of earliest activation was 86+/-38 ms ahead of the RA reference electrogram. The atrial activities from this site were fragmented and exhibited progressive cycle-length shortening with decremental conduction to the rest of the atrium until AF reinitiated. Radiofrequency ablation at the earliest activation site resulted in suppression of AF reinitiation despite pace-inducibility. Improved clinical outcome was observed over 8+/-4 months' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Transvenous atrial defibrillation can help to unmask, map, and ablate a potential atrial focus in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF. A consistent atrial focus is the cause of early reinitiation of AF in 20% of patients with lone AF, and these patients may benefit from this technique. (+info)
Image-guided central venous catheters for apheresis.
Apheresis is an increasingly important procedure in the treatment of a variety of conditions, sometimes performed via peripheral access because of concern over major complications associated with central venous catheter (CVC) placement. This study sought to determine the safety and success for ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided, non-tunneled dual lumen CVCs placed for apheresis. Prospective data collection was made of 200 attempted CVC placements in the radiology department utilizing real time sonographic guidance. The complications relating to placement were noted in all and the number of passes required for venepuncture and whether a single wall puncture was achieved was recorded in 185 cases. Duration of catheterization and reason for line removal were recorded in all. Our study group included 71 donors providing peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplant. CVCs were successfully placed in all patients, 191 lines in the internal jugular and seven in the femoral vein. 86.5% required only a single pass and 80.5% with only anterior wall puncture. Inadvertent but clinically insignificant arterial puncture occurred in six (3%) cases. In no case did this prevent line placement. There were no other procedure-related complications. 173 (87.4%) catheters were removed the same day. No catheters were removed prematurely. There was one case of prolonged venous bleeding. Our study demonstrates the safety of central venous catheters for apheresis provided that duration of catheterization is short and real-time sonographic guidance is used for the puncture, and guide wire and catheter placement are confirmed fluoroscopically. (+info)