Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/644)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Crystal structure of wild-type human procathepsin K. (2/644)

Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. It has been implicated as a major mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Wild-type human procathepsin K has been crystallized in a glycosylated and a deglycosylated form. The latter crystals diffract better, to 3.2 A resolution, and contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R-factor of 0.194. The N-terminal fragment of the proregion forms a globular domain while the C-terminal segment is extended and shows substantial flexibility. The proregion interacts with the enzyme along the substrate binding groove and along the proregion binding loop (residues Ser138-Asn156). It binds to the active site in the opposite direction to that of natural substrates. The overall binding mode of the proregion to cathepsin K is similar to that observed in cathepsin L, caricain, and cathepsin B, but there are local differences that likely contribute to the specificity of these proregions for their cognate enzymes. The main observed difference is in the position of the short helix alpha3p (67p-75p), which occupies the S' subsites. As in the other proenzymes, the proregion utilizes the S2 subsite for anchoring by placing a leucine side chain there, according to the specificity of cathepsin K toward its substrate.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (3/644)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Acidic pH as a physiological regulator of human cathepsin L activity. (4/644)

Human cysteine protease cathepsin L was inactivated at acid pH by a first-order process. The inactivation rate decreased with increasing concentrations of a small synthetic substrate, suggesting that substrates stabilize the active conformation. The substrate-independent inactivation rate constant increased with organic solvent content of the buffer, consistent with internal hydrophobic interactions, disrupted by the organic solvent, also stabilizing the enzyme. Circular dichroism showed that the inactivation is accompanied by large structural changes, a decrease in alpha-helix content being especially pronounced. The high activation energy of the reaction at pH 3.0 (200 kJ.mol-1) supported such a major conformational change occurring. The acid inactivation of cathepsin L was irreversible, consistent with the propeptide being needed for proper folding of the enzyme. Aspartic protease cathepsin D was shown to cleave denatured, but not active cathepsin L, suggesting a potential mechanism for in-vivo regulation and turnover of cathepsin L inside lysosomes.  (+info)

A novel egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase, EDTP, that participates in the embryogenesis of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly). (5/644)

We have previously reported that cathepsin L mRNA is present in unfertilized eggs of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) as a maternal mRNA, which suggests that cathepsin L is required for embryogenesis. Now we have identified an egg protein, with a molecular mass of 100 kDa, that is extremely susceptible to cathepsin L digestion and which disappears rapidly as the embryos develop. We purified this protein to homogeneity, cloned its cDNA, and found that it contained a consensus sequence for the active site of tyrosine phosphatase. In fact this protein showed tyrosine phosphatase activity, indicating that it is a novel tyrosine phosphatase. The expression and subsequent disappearance of this protein, which we have named egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP), may be indispensable for embryogenesis of Sarcophaga.  (+info)

Collagenase, cathepsin B and cathepsin L gene expression in the synovial membrane of patients with early inflammatory arthritis. (6/644)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1, and the cysteine proteases, cathepsin B (CB) and cathepsin L (CL), in the synovial membrane (SM) of patients with early inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Samples of SM were obtained by blind needle biopsy or needle arthroscopy from inflamed knees of 28 patients with early inflammatory arthritis (mean disease duration 10.2 months, range 2 weeks-18 months). Sixteen patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), nine psoriatic arthritis and there was one each with ankylosing spondylitis, gout and an undifferentiated arthritis. Comparison was made with tissue from two patients with established erosive RA and three normal synovial tissue samples. In situ hybridization was performed using digoxigenin-labelled RNA probes. RESULTS: MMP-1, CB and CL were expressed in all patients with early arthritis and in established erosive RA, whereas normal synovium showed only scanty expression. The three proteases were prominent in perivascular infiltrates and endothelial cells of early arthritis tissue. MMP-1 was observed primarily in the lining layer, but was also evident in the sublining area. CB and CL were expressed to a lesser extent in the lining layer, and were present mainly in the subintima. The three proteases were not found in lymphoid aggregrates. No differences were observed between the disease categories. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of MMP-1, CB and CL in the synovium shortly after symptom onset implies that the potential for joint destruction exists at a very early stage in the disease. In addition, the perivascular and endothelial cell expression suggests a role for these proteases in mononuclear cell influx to the inflamed synovium and in angiogenesis.  (+info)

Short report: Diagnosis of human fascioliasis: detection of anti-cathepsin L antibodies in blood samples collected on filter paper. (7/644)

We have developed an ELISA for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis based on the detection of IgG4 antibodies to Fasciola hepatica cathepsin LI cysteine protease. Use of this assay in the Bolivian Altiplano, a region with a high prevalence of the disease, was hampered by the reluctance of the indigenous population to provide blood. To overcome this problem, we have investigated the method of collecting small quantities of blood from the finger onto filter paper, followed by the elution of antibodies for use in the diagnostic assay. Serum samples and blood samples collected onto filter paper were obtained from 57 individuals living in the village of Cutusuma in 1987 and from 11 individuals in Chijipata in 1996. Analysis of the IgG4-ELISA results revealed that there is highly significant linear relationship (P < 0.001) between the two methods of sampling. Most importantly, a reliable diagnosis was made with the blood-filter samples from Cutusuma, which had been stored for 10 years at 40 degrees C. While some deterioration of the blood-filter samples from Cutusuma had occurred over the 10-year storage period, no deterioration occurred with the Chijipata samples, which were stored for one year. Therefore, the method of collecting blood onto filter paper should prove useful for large-scale epidemiologic studies on human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano and in other regions where this disease is prevalent.  (+info)

Short report: Immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 cysteine proteinase. (8/644)

Our laboratory recently developed a diagnostic test (ELISA) for human fascioliasis based on the detection of serum IgG4 antibodies reactive with Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 (CL1). In the present study, we have used recombinant CL1, generated by functional expression of the cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in this immunodiagnostic test and compared its performance with native CL1. Sera obtained from 64 individuals living in Cutusuma village in the northern Altiplano of Bolivia, a region with a high prevalence of human fascioliasis, were analyzed by the IgG4-ELISA. A highly statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.751, P < 0.001) was demonstrated between the absorbances obtained using the recombinant and native proteins. These assays showed that 38 (59%) of the individuals tested were seropositive for fascioliasis, whereas only 26 of them were coprologically positive for F. hepatica eggs. All seronegative patients were also coprologically negative. Serum from individuals infected with schistosomiasis mansoni, cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and Chagas disease did not contain antibodies reactive with the recombinant or native CL1. Therefore, recombinant CL1 shows excellent potential for the development of the first standardized assay for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of human fascioliasis. Finally, our data supports earlier reports on the high prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano, which collectively suggest that the disease has been endemic there for more than a decade.  (+info)