(1/1002) Action of 3 tyrphostin derivatives on casein kinase II from rat liver.
AIM: To study the action of tyrphostin on casein kinase (CK) II. METHODS: CK II was partially purified from rat livers by sequential DE52 and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. CK II activity was assayed by incubating CK II with dephosphorylated casein and [gamma-32P]ATP. RESULTS: AG34 inhibited the activity of CK II with IC50 33 (27-41) mumol.L-1. Both AG372 (121 mumol.L-1) and AG1112 (150 mumol.L-1) displayed inhibitory effects on the activity of CK II. Kinetic studies of AG34 on CK II showed that it was noncompetitive with casein and ATP. CONCLUSION: AG34, AG372, and AG1112 were potent inhibitors of CK II, and the inhibitory action of AG34 was noncompetitive with casein and ATP. (+info)
(2/1002) Inhibition of glutathione synthesis with propargylglycine enhances N-acetylmethionine protection and methylation in bromobenzene-treated Syrian hamsters.
The finding that liver necrosis caused by the environmental glutathione (GSH)-depleting chemical, bromobenzene (BB) is associated with marked impairment in O- and S-methylation of BB metabolites in Syrian hamsters raises questions concerning the role of methyl deficiency in BB toxicity. N-Acetylmethionine (NAM) has proven to be an effective antidote against BB toxicity when given after liver GSH has been depleted extensively. The mechanism of protection by NAM may occur via a replacement of methyl donor and/or via an increase of GSH synthesis. If replacement of the methyl donor is an important process, then blocking the resynthesis of GSH in the methyl-repleted hamsters should not decrease NAM protection. This hypothesis was examined in this study. Propargylglycine (PPG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionase, was used to inhibit the utilization of NAM for GSH resynthesis. Two groups of hamsters were pretreated with an intraperitoneal (ip) dose of PPG (30 mg/kg) or saline 24 h before BB administration (800 mg/kg, ip). At 5 h after BB treatment, an ip dose of NAM (1200 mg/kg) was given. Light microscopic examinations of liver sections obtained 24 h after BB treatment indicated that NAM provided better protection (P < 0.05) in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. Liver GSH content, however, was lower in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. The Syrian hamster has a limited capability to N-deacetylated NAM. The substitution of NAM with methionine (Met; 450 mg/kg) resulted in a higher level of GSH in the BB + Met group than in the BB + NAM group (P < 0.05). The enhanced protection by PPG in the PPG + BB + NAM group was accompanied by higher (P < 0.05) urinary excretions of specificO- and S-methylated bromothiocatechols than in the BB + NAM group. The results suggest that NAM protection occurs primarily via a replacement of the methyl donor and that methyl deficiency occurring in response to GSH repletion plays a potential role in BB toxicity. (+info)
(3/1002) Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0.
We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well. (+info)
(4/1002) Cytochrome P-450 3A and 2D6 catalyze ortho hydroxylation of 4-hydroxytamoxifen and 3-hydroxytamoxifen (droloxifene) yielding tamoxifen catechol: involvement of catechols in covalent binding to hepatic proteins.
Earlier study suggested that 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen (tam catechol), a tamoxifen metabolite, is proximate to the reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins and possibly to DNA (). The current study demonstrates that rat and human hepatic cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) catalyze tam catechol formation from tamoxifen (tam), 3-hydroxy-tam (Droloxifene), and 4-hydroxy-tam (4-OH-tam). Higher levels of catechol were formed from 4-OH-tam and 3-hydroxy-tam than from tam. Evidence that human hepatic CYP3A4 and 2D6 catalyze the formation of tam catechol from 4-OH-tam and supportive data that the catechol is proximate to the reactive intermediate, was obtained: 1) There was a good correlation (r = 0.82; p =.0004) between steroidal 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A activity) and ortho hydroxylation of 4-OH-tam in human liver microsomes; 2) monospecific antibodies against CYP3A4 strongly inhibited catechol formation from 4-OH-tam and its covalent binding to proteins in human liver microsomes; 3) low levels of ketoconazole inhibited catechol tam accumulation and covalent binding of 4-OH-tam to human liver proteins; 4) among human P-450s expressed in insect cells (supersomes), only CYP3A4 and 2D6 noticeably catalyzed catechol formation, and cytochrome b5 markedly stimulated the CYP3A4 catalysis; and 5) human livers with high CYP3A and low or high CYP2D6 activity exhibited high catechol formation and those with low 3A and 2D6 activities formed only little catechol. These findings demonstrate that CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent 2D6 catalyze tam catechol formation and support the participation of tam catechol in covalent binding to proteins. (+info)
(5/1002) Effect of catecholamic acid on detoxication and distribution of NiCl2 in mice and rats.
AIM: To study the effect of catecholamic acid (CBMIDA) on detoxication of NiCl2. METHODS: Mice and rats were injected s.c. or i.m. CBMIDA immediately after i.p. NiCl2. Each mouse was injected i.p. CBMIDA after i.v. 63NiCl2 185 kBq, and radioactivities of various tissues were measured with liquid scintillation counter at 24 h. The localization of 63Ni was shown by the whole-body autoradiography. RESULTS: CBMIDA s.c. 0.5-1.5 g.kg-1 markedly reduced the mortality from acute poisoning of i.p. NiCl2 500 mg.kg-1. After i.p. NiCl2 in mice, the LD50 was 82.7 mg.kg-1. Mice were injected s.c. CBMIDA 1.5 or 2.5 g.kg-1 after Ni poisoning, the LD50 of NiCl2 were raised to 789 or 820 mg.kg-1, respectively. The LD50 of NiCl2 was 39 mg.kg-1 in rat. If CBMIDA was injected i.m. 0.5 g.kg-1 after i.p. NiCl2, the LD50 was 332 mg.kg-1. CBMIDA 1.5 g.kg-1 i.m. after i.v. 63NiCl2, decreased the contents of 63Ni in blood and lung of mice vs control mice at 24 h. The contents of 63Ni in brain, heart, spleen, and kidney were similar to those of the control mice. The content of 63Ni in bone was more than the control. The excretions of 63Ni through urine and feces were not increased by CBMIDA at 24 h. The whole-body autoradiography showed that the radioactivity was highly localized in the kidney, lung, and Harder's gland. There was a moderate level of 63Ni in the liver, bone, skin, and blood. A pronounced accumulation occurred in the bone. There was a marked reduction of 63Ni in the lung, skin, liver, and blood after i.p. CBMIDA. CONCLUSION: The CBMIDA markedly raised the survival rate of nickel-poisoned mice and rats, and decreased 63Ni levels in lung and blood. (+info)
(6/1002) Cloning of a gene encoding hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase that catalyzes both intradiol and extradiol ring cleavage of catechol.
Two Escherichia coli transformants with catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity were selected from a gene library of the benzamide-assimilating bacterium Arthrobacter species strain BA-5-17, which produces four catechol 1,2-dioxygenase isozymes. A DNA fragment isolated from one transformant contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF shared high identity with hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase. An enzyme expressed by the ORF was purified to homogeneity and characterized. When hydroxyquinol was used as a substrate, the purified enzyme showed 6.8-fold activity of that for catechol. On the basis of the sequence identity and substrate specificity of the enzyme, we concluded that the ORF encoded hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase. When catechol was used as a substrate, cis,cis-muconic acid and 2-hydroxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which were products by the intradiol and extradiol ring cleavage activities, respectively, were produced. These results showed that the hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase reported here was a novel dioxygenase that catalyzed both the intradiol and extradiol cleavage of catechol. (+info)
(7/1002) Interactions of 6-gingerol and ellagic acid with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.
The inotropic/lusitropic effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on the heart are mediated largely by protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of phospholamban, the natural protein regulator of the Ca2+ pump present in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Gingerol, a plant derivative, is known to produce similar effects when tested in isolated cardiac muscle. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of gingerol and another plant derivative, ellagic acid, on the kinetics of the SR Ca2+ pump with those of PKA-catalyzed phospholamban phosphorylation to elucidate their mechanisms of Ca2+ pump regulation. As previously demonstrated for PKA, 50 microM gingerol or ellagic acid increased Vmax(Ca) of Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity assayed at millimolar ATP concentrations in light cardiac SR vesicles. Unlike PKA, which decreases Km(Ca), neither compound had a significant effect on Km(Ca) in unphosphorylated vesicles. However, gingerol increased Km(Ca) in phosphorylated vesicles, in which Ca2+ uptake was significantly increased further at saturating Ca2+ and remained unchanged at subsaturating Ca2+. An inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by gingerol at micromolar MgATP concentrations was overcome with increasing MgATP concentrations. The stimulation of Ca2+ uptake attributable to gingerol in unphosphorylated microsomes at saturating Ca2+ was 30% to 40% when assayed at 0.05 to 2 mM MgATP and only about 12% in phosphorylated microsomes as well as in rabbit fast skeletal muscle light SR. The present results support the view that an ATP-dependent increase in Vmax(Ca) of the SR Ca2+ pump plays an important role in mediating cardiac contractile responses to gingerol and phospholamban-dependent beta-adrenergic stimulation. (+info)
(8/1002) A potential mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility of individuals with a polymorphism in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) to benzene toxicity.
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a two-electron reductase that detoxifies quinones derived from the oxidation of phenolic metabolites of benzene. A polymorphism in NQO1, a C609T substitution, has been identified, and individuals homozygous for this change (T/T) have no detectable NQO1. Exposed workers with a T/T genotype have an increased risk of benzene hematotoxicity. This finding suggests NQO1 is protective against benzene toxicity, which is difficult to reconcile with the lack of detectable NQO1 in human bone marrow. The human promyeloblastic cell line, KG-1a, was used to investigate the ability of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) to induce NQO1. A concentration-dependent induction of NQO1 protein and activity was observed in KG-1a cells cultured with HQ. Multiple detoxification systems, including NQO1 and glutathione protect against benzene metabolite-induced toxicity. Indeed, exposure to a noncytotoxic concentration of HQ induced both NQO1 and soluble thiols and protected against HQ-induced apoptosis. NQO1 protein and activity increased in wild-type human bone marrow cells (C/C) exposed to HQ, whereas no NQO1 was induced by HQ in bone marrow cells with the T/T genotype. Intermediate induction of NQO1 by HQ was observed in heterozygous bone marrow cells (C/T). NQO1 also was induced by HQ in wild-type (C/C) human bone marrow CD34(+) progenitor cells. Our data suggest that failure to induce functional NQO1 may contribute to the increased risk of benzene poisoning in individuals homozygous for the NQO1 C609T substitution (T/T). (+info)