Lower motor neuron disease with accumulation of neurofilaments in a cat.
A young cat had signs of tetraparesis that progressed to tetraplegia within a few weeks. Clinically, there was lower motor neuron disease with areflexia and muscle atrophy in all limbs. Degeneration of the motor neurons in the spinal cord was seen on histological examination. Ultrastructurally, the degeneration of nerve cells was characterized by abnormal proliferation of neurofilaments. These findings were compared to other motor neuron diseases and neurofibrillary accumulations in man and animals. (+info)
Bartonella koehlerae sp. nov., isolated from cats.
Two of the 25 Bartonella isolates recovered during a prevalence study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in domestic cats from the greater San Francisco Bay region were found to differ phenotypically and genotypically from all prior B. henselae isolates. These isolates, C-29 and C-30, which were recovered from the blood of two pet cats belonging to the same household, grew on chocolate agar as pinpoint colonies following 14 days of incubation at 35 degrees C in a candle jar but failed to grow on heart infusion agar supplemented with 5% rabbit blood. Additional phenotypic characteristics distinguished the isolates C-29 and C-30 from other feline B. henselae isolates. The restriction patterns obtained for C-29 and C-30 by citrate synthase PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis as well as by genomic RFLP could not be distinguished from each other but were distinctly different from that of the B. henselae type strain. In reciprocal reactions, DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 were 97 to 100% related under optimal and stringent DNA reassociation conditions, with 0 to 0.5% divergence within related sequences. Labeled DNA from the type strain of B. henselae was 61 to 65% related to unlabeled DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 in 55 degrees C reactions, with 5.0 to 5.5% divergence within the related sequences, and 31 to 41% related in stringent, 70 degrees C reactions. In reciprocal reactions, labeled DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 were 68 to 92% related to those of the B. henselae type strain and other B. henselae strains, with 5 to 7% divergence. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain C-29 was 99.54% homologous to that of the type strain of B. henselae. On the basis of these findings, the two isolates C-29 and C-30 are designated a new species of Bartonella, for which we propose the name Bartonella koehlerae. The type strain of Bartonella koehlerae is strain C-29 (ATCC 700693). (+info)
Chronic intermittent vomiting in a cat: a case of chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic gastritis.
A 3-year-old cat presented for chronic intermittent vomiting was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic gastritis via histological examination of an endoscopic gastric biopsy. The condition was effectively managed with prednisone. The author cautions against missing a diagnosis of alimentary lymphosarcoma without a full-thickness gastric biopsy. (+info)
Recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) variants establish a limited infection with altered cell tropism in specific-pathogen-free cats in the absence of FeLV subgroup A helper virus.
Feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) is commonly associated with feline lymphosarcoma and arises through recombination between endogenous retroviral elements inherited in the cat genome and corresponding regions of the envelope (env) gene from FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A). In vivo infectivity for FeLV-B is thought to be inefficient in the absence of FeLV-A. Proposed FeLV-A helper functions include enhanced replication efficiency, immune evasion, and replication rescue for defective FeLV-B virions. In vitro analysis of the recombinant FeLV-B-like viruses (rFeLVs) employed in this study confirmed these viruses were replication competent prior to their use in an in vivo study without FeLV-A helper virus. Eight specific-pathogen-free kittens were inoculated with the rFeLVs alone. Subsequent hematology and histology results were within normal limits, however, in the absence of detectable viremia, virus expression, or significant seroconversion, rFeLV proviral DNA was detected in bone marrow tissue of 4/4 (100%) cats at 45 weeks postinoculation (pi), indicating these rFeLVs established a limited but persistent infection in the absence of FeLV-A. Altered cell tropism was also noted. Focal infection was seen in T-cell areas of the splenic follicles in 3/4 (75%) rFeLV-infected cats analyzed, while an FeLV-A-infected cat showed focal infection in B-cell areas of the splenic follicles. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the surface glycoprotein portion of the rFeLV env gene amplified from bone marrow tissue collected at 45 weeks pi showed no sequence alterations from the original rFeLV inocula. (+info)
Overexpression of c-Ras in hyperplasia and adenomas of the feline thyroid gland: an immunohistochemical analysis of 34 cases.
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid glands from 18 cats diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were evaluated immunohistochemically for overexpression of the products of oncogenes c-ras and bcl2 and the tumor suppressor gene p53. Fourteen thyroid glands from euthyroid cats without histologically detectable thyroid lesions were examined similarly as controls. Results from these investigations showed that all cases of nodular follicular hyperplasia/adenomas stained positively for overexpression of c-Ras protein using a mouse monoclonal anti-human pan-Ras antibody. The most intensely positively staining regions were in luminal cells surrounding abortive follicles. Subjacent thyroid and parathyroid glands from euthyroid cats did not stain immunohistochemically for pan-Ras. There was no detectable staining for either Bc12 or p53 in any of the cats. These results indicated that overexpression of c-ras was highly associated with areas of nodular follicular hyperplasia/adenomas of feline thyroid glands, and mutations in this oncogene may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of hyperthyroidism in cats. (+info)
Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: morphologic and epidemiologic data.
In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor salinomycin. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from 823 cats, or about 1% of the cats at risk. In 21 affected cats, postmortem examination was performed. The affected cats had acute onset of lameness and paralysis of the hindlimbs followed by the forelimbs. Clinical and pathologic examination indicated a distal polyneuropathy involving both the sensory and motor nerves. (+info)
Inflammatory pseudotumor in a cat with cutaneous mycobacteriosis.
A 5-year-old, castrated male, domestic Shorthair Cat had an ulcerated mass with fistulous tracts on the left hind paw. Homogeneous tan tissue diffusely infiltrated the dermis and subcutis of the paw and extended proximally so that, short of amputation, complete excision was not feasible. Biopsy specimens consisted of granulation tissue with marked proliferation of spindle cells. Neutrophils and histiocytic cells were scattered among the spindle cells. The histiocytic cells had abundant foamy or vacuolated cytoplasm, but features of granulomatous inflammation, such as epithelioid macrophages or granuloma formation, were not observed. The initial impression was inflammatory granulation tissue, but the degree of fibroplasia prompted inclusion of fibrosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous mycobacteriosis was diagnosed when numerous acid-fast bacteria were identified with Kinyoun's stain; Mycobacterium avium was subsequently cultured. The cat was euthanatized because of lack of response to enrofloxacin therapy. At necropsy, lesions were localized to the hind limb. Not only is mycobacteriosis an uncommon cause of cutaneous masses in cats, but this case was unusual because of the lack of granuloma formation and the similarity of the mass to a spindle cell tumor. (+info)
Lymphangiosarcomas in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases.
Clinical, macroscopic, and histologic features of 12 lymphangiosarcomas in cats are described. Nine tumors were located in the subcutaneous tissue at the caudoventral abdominal wall (eight cats) or in the neck (one cat). The remaining three cats had lymphangiosarcomas around the cranial mesenteric artery (two cats) or precardial in the mediastinum (one cat). Macroscopically, the tumors were noncircumscribed, white, edematous, and intermixed with fat tissue. Histologic features varied from cleft-forming and cavernous growth to papilliform and solid patterns. Follow-up data were available for seven cats with subcutaneous lymphangiosarcomas. All these cats died or were euthanatized within 6 months after surgery because of poor wound healing, local recurrence, or distant metastases. The cats with abdominal or thoracic masses were either euthanatized at surgery or within 6 months after the first surgery because of recurrent chylothorax, chyloperitoneum, or distant metastases. (+info)