Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1.
The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function. (+info
Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation.
The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction. (+info
Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA.
Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box. (+info
Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.
Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info
Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis.
CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity. (+info
A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network. (+info
Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth.
The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed. (+info
Nuclear matrix targeting of the protein kinase CK2 signal as a common downstream response to androgen or growth factor stimulation of prostate cancer cells.
Protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cell growth. Androgenic stimulus in rat prostate modulates its association with nuclear matrix (NM) and chromatin. Because the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells is influenced by androgens and/or growth factors, we determined the nature of CK2 signaling in the NM in response to androgen and growth factor stimuli. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells were cultured in media to regulate their growth in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) or growth factors (epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha). The activity of CK2 was measured in the cytosolic and NM fractions isolated from these cells after treatment with growth stimuli. The changes in CK2 in various fractions were also confirmed by immunoblotting with a specific antibody. LNCaP cells responded to both 5alpha-DHT and growth factors for growth. The presence of these agents in the culture medium evoked a translocation of CK2 to the NM from the cytosol. The PC-3 cells did not respond to 5alpha-DHT for growth but did respond to growth factors. Under these conditions, there was also a translocation of CK2 to the NM concomitant with a decrease in the cytosolic fraction. These results suggest that CK2 translocation to the NM occurs in response to various growth stimuli in cells in culture. Thus, CK2 is a common downstream signal transducer in response to diverse growth stimuli that may relate to the pathobiology of prostate cancer cells. (+info