In vivo and in vitro characterization of an RNA replication enhancer in a satellite RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus. (17/132)

RNA replication enhancers are cis-acting elements that can stimulate replication or transcription of RNA viruses. Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) and satC, a parasitic RNA associated with TCV infections, contain stem-loop structures that are RNA replication enhancers (P. Nagy, J. Pogany, and A. E. Simon, EMBO J. 1999, 18, 5653-5665). We have found that replacement of 28 nt of the satC enhancer, termed the motif1-hairpin, with 28 randomized bases reduced satC accumulation 8- to 13-fold in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. Deletion of single-stranded flanking sequences at either side of the hairpin also affected RNA accumulation with combined alterations at both sides of the hairpin showing the most detrimental effect in protoplasts. In vitro analysis with a partially purified TCV RdRp preparation demonstrated that the motif1-hairpin in its minus-sense orientation was able to stimulate RNA synthesis from the satC hairpin promoter (located at the 3' end of plus strands) by almost twofold. This level of RNA synthesis stimulation is approximately fivefold lower than that observed with a linear promoter, suggesting that a highly stable hairpin promoter is less responsive to the presence of the motif1-hairpin enhancer than a linear promoter. The motif1-hairpin in its plus-sense orientation was only 60% as active in enhancing transcription from the hairpin promoter. Since the motif1-hairpin is a hotspot for RNA recombination during plus-strand synthesis and since satC promoters located on the minus-strand are all short linear sequences, these findings support the hypothesis that the motif1-hairpin is primarily involved in enhancing plus-strand synthesis.  (+info)

How RNA viruses exchange their genetic material. (18/132)

One of the most unusual features of RNA viruses is their enormous genetic variability. Among the different processes contributing to the continuous generation of new viral variants RNA recombination is of special importance. This process has been observed for human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses. The collected data reveal a great susceptibility of RNA viruses to recombination. They also indicate that genetic RNA recombination (especially the nonhomologous one) is a major factor responsible for the emergence of new viral strains or species. Although the formation and accumulation of viral recombinants was observed in numerous RNA viruses, the molecular basis of this phenomenon was studied in only a few viral species. Among them, brome mosaic virus (BMV), a model (+)RNA virus offers the best opportunities to investigate various aspects of genetic RNA recombination in vivo. Unlike any other, the BMV-based system enables homologous and nonhomologous recombination studies at both the protein and RNA levels. As a consequence, BMV is the virus for which the structural requirements for genetic RNA recombination have been most precisely established. Nevertheless, the previously proposed model of genetic recombination in BMV still had one weakness: it could not really explain the role of RNA structure in nonhomologous recombination. Recent discoveries concerning the latter problem give us a chance to fill this gap. That is why in this review we present and thoroughly discuss all results concerning nonhomologous recombination in BMV that have been obtained until now.  (+info)

A six-nucleotide segment within the 3' untranslated region of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus plays an essential role in translational enhancement. (19/132)

RNA plant viruses use various translational regulatory mechanisms to control their gene expression. Translational enhancement of viral mRNAs that leads to higher levels of protein synthesis from specific genes may be essential for the virus to successfully compete for cellular translational machinery. The control elements have yet to be analyzed for members of the genus Carmovirus, a small group of plant viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes. In this study, we examined the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) for its role in the translational regulation of viral gene expression. The results showed that the 3' UTR of HCRSV significantly enhanced the translation of several open reading frames on gRNA and sgRNA and a viral gene in a bicistronic construct with an inserted internal ribosome entry site. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies of both the bicistronic construct and full-length gRNA, we demonstrated that a six-nucleotide sequence, GGGCAG, that is complementary to the 3' region of the 18S rRNA and a minimal length of 180 nucleotides are required for the enhancement of translation induced by the 3' UTR.  (+info)

Comparison of turnip crinkle virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase preparations expressed in Escherichia coli or derived from infected plants. (20/132)

Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small, plus-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of plants. A virus-coded protein, p88, which is required for replication has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. In vitro assays revealed that the recombinant p88 has an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity and can also bind to RNA. Deletion of the N-terminal region in p88 resulted in a more active RdRp, while further deletions abolished RdRp activity. Comparison of the E. coli-expressed p88, the N-terminal deletion mutant of p88, and a TCV RdRp preparation obtained from infected plants revealed that these preparations show remarkable similarities in RNA template recognition and usage. Both the recombinant and the plant TCV RdRp preparations are capable of de novo initiation on both plus- and minus-strand satC and satD templates, which are small parasitic RNAs associated with TCV infections. In addition, these RdRp preparations can efficiently recognize the related Tomato bushy stunt virus promoter sequences, including the minus- and plus-strand initiation promoters. Heterologous viral and artificial promoters are recognized poorly by the recombinant and the plant TCV RdRps. Further comparison of the single-component recombinant TCV RdRp and the multicomponent plant TCV RdRp will help dissect the functions of various components of the TCV replicase.  (+info)

Differential effectiveness of salicylate-dependent and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent induced resistance in Arabidopsis. (21/132)

Salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) are each involved in the regulation of basal resistance against different pathogens. These three signals play important roles in induced resistance as well. SA is a key regulator of pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas JA and ET are required for rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Both types of induced resistance are effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. In this study, we compared the spectrum of effectiveness of SAR and ISR using an oomycete, a fungal, a bacterial, and a viral pathogen. In noninduced Arabidopsis plants, these pathogens are primarily resisted through either SA-dependent basal resistance (Peronospora parasitica and Turnip crinkle virus [TCV]), JA/ET-dependent basal resistance responses (Alternaria brassicicola), or a combination of SA-, JA-, and ET-dependent defenses (Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae). Activation of ISR resulted in a significant level of protection against A. brassicicola, whereas SAR was ineffective against this pathogen. Conversely, activation of SAR resulted in a high level of protection against P. parasitica and TCV, whereas ISR conferred only weak and no protection against P. parasitica and TCV, respectively. Induction of SAR and ISR was equally effective against X. campestris pv. armoraciae. These results indicate that SAR is effective against pathogens that in noninduced plants are resisted through SA-dependent defenses, whereas ISR is effective against pathogens that in noninduced plants are resisted through JA/ET-dependent defenses. This suggests that SAR and ISR constitute a reinforcement of extant SA- or JA/ET-dependent basal defense responses, respectively.  (+info)

Chemically induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is independent of pathogenesis-related protein expression and the NPR1 gene. (22/132)

Salicylic acid (SA) treatment triggers inhibition of replication or movement of several positive-sense RNA plant viruses in tobacco. This resistance can also be stimulated by nonlethal concentrations of cyanide and antimycin A (AA) without triggering induction of pathogenesis-related PR-1 protein genes. In two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia and Nossen), SA-induced resistance to a tobamovirus, Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV), was also induced by nonlethal concentrations of cyanide and AA without concomitant induction of PR-1 gene expression. Furthermore, chemically induced resistance to TVCV, as well as the induction of the plant mitochondrial alternative oxidase (a potential target for the chemicals), was independent of NPR1, a gene that plays a key role downstream of SA in the induction of PR proteins. The chemically induced resistance to TVCV appeared to be due to inhibition of replication at the site of inoculation. Taken together, these results show that in Arabidopsis, as in tobacco, resistance to viruses can be induced via a distinct branch of the defensive signal transduction pathway. This suggests that the existence of this virus-specific branch may be widespread among plants.  (+info)

Insertion and topology of a plant viral movement protein in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (23/132)

Virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) mediate cell-to-cell spread of viral RNA through plant membranous intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. The molecular pathway by which MPs interact with viral genomes and target plasmodesmata channels is largely unknown. The 9-kDa MP from carnation mottle carmovirus (CarMV) contains two potential transmembrane domains. To explore the possibility that this protein is in fact an intrinsic membrane protein, we have investigated its insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. By using in vitro translation in the presence of dog pancreas microsomes, we demonstrate that CarMV p9 inserts into the endoplasmic reticulum without the aid of any additional viral or plant host components. We further show that the membrane topology of CarMV p9 is N(cyt)-C(cyt) (N and C termini of the protein facing the cytoplasm) by in vitro translation of a series of truncated and full-length constructs with engineered glycosylation sites. Based on these results, we propose a topological model in which CarMV p9 is anchored in the membrane with its N- and C-terminal tail segments interacting with its soluble, RNA-bound partner CarMV p7, to accomplish the viral cell-to-cell movement function.  (+info)

The p23 protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is indispensable for host-specific replication. (24/132)

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein.  (+info)