Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.
Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular. (+info)
Phenotypical and morphological alterations to rat sinusoidal endothelial cells in arterialized livers after portal branch ligation.
The hepatic sinusoids are preferentially supplied with portal venous blood and equipped with fenestrated endothelial cells that are distinct from capillary endothelial cells. We previously observed in rats that sinusoidal capillarization proceeded concurrently with arterial blood supply during hepatocarcinogenesis. This study aimed to clarify the inducing role of arterialization in sinusoidal capillarization by investigating phenotypical, morphological and functional alterations to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) in arterialized rat livers induced by portal branch ligation. At one week, after massive hepatic necrosis following ligation, the livers were restored to their normal architecture without causing post-necrotic fibrosis. At 12-21 weeks, they exhibited a normal histology except for mild pericellular fibrosis which developed along sinusoids or between adjacent hepatocytes. SECs expressed factor VIII-related antigen and showed a decrease in the number of fenestrae and porosity, still lacking any basement membrane but further retaining the functional capacity for carmine dye uptake. Stellate cells, while occasionally associated with large amounts of collagen bundles, contained many lipid droplets and expressed no alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating a quiescent property. Kupffer cells were commonly found within the sinusoids. The present results indicate that arterialization of the liver induces a partial (but not complete) transition of SECs into capillary-type endothelial cells, suggesting that arterialization might be one of the factors which induce sinusoidal capillarization in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. (+info)
Protection against Trp-P-2 mutagenicity by purpurin: mechanism of in vitro antimutagenesis.
Purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone) is a natural pigment isolated from madder root (Rubia tinctorum) which inhibits the mutagenicity of a number of heterocyclic amines in the Ames mutagenicity test. Two effects were observed in the presence of purpurin. The rate of degradation of 3-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido inverted question mark4,3-bindole inverted question markTrp-P-2(NHOH) at neutral pH was increased. The major product of this purpurin-dependent degradation was identified as the parent amine 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido inverted question mark4,3-bindole (Trp-P-2). Secondly, the rate of Trp-P-2 N-hydroxylation, the major route of bioactivation, by PCB-treated rat hepatic microsomes was markedly decreased. Cytochrome P450-dependent O-dealkylation of methoxy-, ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin by these microsomes was also significantly inhibited by purpurin. The nature of this inhibition was competitive. Spectrophotometric investigations suggest no direct interaction between Trp-P-2 and purpurin. Furthermore, no evidence for Trp-P-2 binding was observed with carminic acid, a structural analog of purpurin, when it was immobilized on omega-aminohexyl agarose. Therefore, in vitro the proposed mechanism by which purpurin protects against heterocyclic amine-induced mutagenesis involves competitive inhibition of cytochrome P450-dependent bioactivation and accelerated degradation of the N-hydroxylamine to the parent amine. (+info)
Use of a panel of markers in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and reactive mesothelial cells in fluid cytology.
To evaluate the use of a panel of markers to differentiate adenocarcinoma and the reactive/inflammatory process in fluid cytology, we stained 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell blocks of effusion fluid from patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma and 24 cell blocks from patients with benign effusion with mucicarmine and antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), B72.3, and calretinin. Positive staining with CEA, B72.3, and mucicarmine was seen in 22 (76%), 20 (69%), and 18 (62%) adenocarcinoma cases, respectively. All except 1 adenocarcinoma was negative for calretinin. No benign cases were positive for B72.3 and mucicarmine. In 1 benign case, scattered epithelial cells demonstrated weak positivity for CEA. The majority of combinations were 100% specific for adenocarcinoma. The highest sensitivity (86%) for adenocarcinomas was achieved with the staining combination of negative for calretinin and positive for any adenocarcinoma marker (CEA, B72.3, or mucicarmine). The use of a panel of markers that recognize adenocarcinoma and mesothelial cells is useful in the differential diagnosis between metastatic adenocarcinoma and the reactive/inflammatory process. The profile of positive staining with at least one of the adenocarcinoma markers and negative calretinin staining is highly specific and sensitive for identifying adenocarcinoma in fluid cytology. (+info)
An evaluation of UV protection imparted by cotton fabrics dyed with natural colorants.
BACKGROUND: The ultraviolet properties of textiles dyed with synthetic dyes have been widely reported in literature. However, no study has investigated the ultraviolet properties of natural fabrics dyed with natural colorants. This study reports the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of cotton fabrics dyed with colorants of plant and insect origins. METHODS: Three cotton fabrics were dyed with three natural colorants. Fabrics were characterized with respect to fabric construction, weight, thickness and thread count. Influence of fabric characteristics on Ultraviolet Protection Factor was studied. Role of colorant concentration on the ultraviolet protection factor was examined via color strength analysis. RESULTS: A positive correlation was observed between the weight of the fabric and their UPF values. Similarly, thicker fabrics offered more protection from ultraviolet rays. Thread count appears to negatively correlate with UPF. Dyeing with natural colorants dramatically increased the protective abilities of all three fabric constructions. Additionally, within the same fabric type UPF values increased with higher depths of shade. CONCLUSION: Dyeing cotton fabrics with natural colorants increases the ultraviolet protective abilities of the fabrics and can be considered as an effective protection against ultraviolet rays. The UPF is further enhanced with colorant of dark hues and with high concentration of the colorant in the fabric. (+info)
Flow and conduit formation in the external fluid-transport system of a suspension feeder.
To what extent is the development of a fluid-transport system related to flow within the system? Colonies of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea have a simple external fluid-transport system with three components: the canopy of lophophores (crowns of ciliated tentacles), the edge of the canopy, and chimneys (raised openings in the canopy). The lophophores pump seawater into the colony and capture food particles from the seawater. The chimneys and canopy edge let the water back out of the colony. New chimneys form at the canopy edge as the colony grows. I tested whether there was a correlation between chimney formation and excurrent flow speed at the canopy edge by measuring excurrent flow speeds prior to chimney formation. Excurrent flow speeds were higher in regions that produced chimneys than in regions that did not form chimneys. Observations of changes in chimney shape after anesthetization with MgCl2 suggest that both growth and behavior determine chimney shape. Together, the results suggest that there is a strong correlation between growth and flow in this external fluid-transport system, with new chimneys forming at sites of high flow. (+info)
A Caenorhabditis elegans model of insulin resistance: altered macronutrient storage and dauer formation in an OGT-1 knockout.
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an evolutionarily conserved modification of nuclear pore proteins, signaling kinases, and transcription factors. The O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzing O-GlcNAc addition is essential in mammals and mediates the last step in a nutrient-sensing "hexosamine-signaling pathway." This pathway may be deregulated in diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. To examine the function of O-GlcNAc in a genetically amenable organism, we describe a putative null allele of OGT in Caenorhabditis elegans that is viable and fertile. We demonstrate that, whereas nuclear pore proteins of the homozygous deletion strain are devoid of O-GlcNAc, nuclear transport of transcription factors appears normal. However, the OGT mutant exhibits striking metabolic changes manifested in a approximately 3-fold elevation in trehalose levels and glycogen stores with a concomitant approximately 3-fold decrease in triglycerides levels. In nematodes, a highly conserved insulin-like signaling cascade regulates macronutrient storage, longevity, and dauer formation. The OGT knockout suppresses dauer larvae formation induced by a temperature-sensitive allele of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2. Our findings demonstrate that OGT modulates macronutrient storage and dauer formation in C. elegans, providing a unique genetic model for examining the role of O-GlcNAc in cellular signaling and insulin resistance. (+info)
DPSS yellow-green 561-nm lasers for improved fluorochrome detection by flow cytometry.
INTRODUCTION: Blue-green 488-nm laser sources are widespread in flow cytometry but suffer some drawbacks for cell analysis, including their excitation of endogenous proteins (resulting in high cellular autofluorescence) and their less-than-optimal coincidence with the excitation maxima of commonly used fluorochromes, including the phycoerythrins (PE). Longer wavelength lasers such as green helium-neons and, more recently, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) 532-nm sources have previously been employed to overcome these difficulties and improve overall sensitivity for PE. In this study, we evaluate an even longer wavelength DPSS 561-nm for its ability to improve PE and DsRed fluorescent protein detection sensitivity. METHODS: A DPSS 561-nm laser emitting at 10 mW was mounted onto a BD LSR II. Mouse thymoma cells labeled with cell surface marker antibodies conjugated to the R- and B-forms of PE were analyzed and compared with conventional 488-nm excitation using the same bandpass filters and signal travel distances. A similar analysis was carried out with cell lines expressing the red fluorescent protein DsRed, several green-yellow excited low molecular weight fluorochromes, and a rhodamine-based caspase substrate. Additionally, cells labeled with PE and co-labeled with fluorescein or simultaneously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were analyzed to determine if PE excitation at 561 nm with simultaneous fluorescein/GFP detection was feasible. RESULTS: The DPSS 561-nm laser gave a several-fold improvement in the fluorochrome to autofluorescence ratios between PE-labeled cells and unlabeled controls. Analysis of cells expressing the fluorescent protein DsRed with the DPSS 561-nm source gave a 6-7-fold improvement in sensitivity over 488-nm excitation, and gave excellent excitation of yellow-green excited fluorochromes and rhodamine-based physiological probes. Yellow-green laser light also caused virtually no impingement on the spatially separated fluorescein/GFP detector, a significant problem with green laser sources, and also allowed simultaneous analysis of GFP and PE with virtually no signal overlap or requirement for color compensation. CONCLUSIONS: DPSS 561-nm laser excitation gave significantly improved sensitivity for both PE-labeled and DsRed expressing cells, with little contamination of a typical fluorescein/GFP detector. (+info)