Relationships of fasting and postload glucose levels to sex and alcohol consumption. Are American Diabetes Association criteria biased against detection of diabetes in women?
OBJECTIVE: To compare, in men and women, the prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes assessed using criteria from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and to investigate risk factors associated with fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from two companion surveys of Europeans, South Asians, and Afro-Caribbeans in west London were used. A total of 4,367 men and women aged 40-64 years who were not known to have diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was estimated using the ADA (fasting plasma glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l) and WHO (2-h postload glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) criteria for epidemiologic studies. The association of body fat and usual alcohol intake with plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with the WHO criterion, the ADA criterion gave a higher prevalence of diabetes in men (6.4 vs. 4.7%) but a lower prevalence in women (3.3 vs. 4.2%). In Afro-Caribbeans, the sex difference in diabetes prevalence was reversed. Women had significantly lower fasting glucose than men despite higher 2-h glucose levels. Alcohol intake was positively associated with fasting glucose in men and women but not with 2-h glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: The new ADA criterion, based on fasting glucose alone, does not take account of sex differences in metabolic response to fasting or possible artifactual effects on fasting glucose. With the ADA criterion, alcohol intake was a significant risk factor for diabetes in our study population; this was not the case with the WHO criterion. (+info)
Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin. (+info)
Health services research in the English-speaking Caribbean 1984-93: a quantitative review.
Evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of health services is important for all countries, especially those with limited resources. This study aimed to evaluate the volume and quality of health services research (HSR) conducted in one developing region, the English-speaking Caribbean. Data were abstracted from all 770 abstracts describing presentations at the annual scientific meetings of the Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council for the decade 1984 to 1993. Of these, 341 abstracts were judged to report health services research and were from the English-speaking Caribbean. Hospital services were evaluated in 240 (70%) reports while primary health services were evaluated in only 90 (26%). Most hospital-based studies evaluated the use and outcome of medical and surgical services through the collection of case series and cohorts of cases, with a median sample size of 104 (interquartile range 38 to 320). Evaluations at primary level were more likely to evaluate need or demand for services, were more likely to report cross sectional surveys or randomized trials and included larger numbers of subjects (median 343, interquartile range 121 to 661). Patient-based measures of health status and measures of resource use were not often reported at either primary or secondary level. Estimation and hypothesis testing were infrequently employed in data analysis. A large proportion of the research presented could be classified as HSR but measures are needed to increase the motivation for research into primary care and to improve skills in HSR study design, conduct and analysis among those presently conducting research. (+info)
Little evidence of HLA-G mRNA polymorphism in Caucasian or Afro-Caribbean populations.
HLA-G is a nonclassical class I MHC molecule of unknown function expressed on human trophoblast. The level of polymorphism at the HLA-G locus is of considerable importance, since the paternally inherited gene product is exposed to the maternal immune system during pregnancy. However, previous studies of HLA-G polymorphism using genomic DNA samples have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate polymorphism in trophoblast HLA-G mRNA from pregnancies in ten Caucasian and twelve Afro-Caribbean women by RT-PCR. A similar PCR protocol was also applied to umbilical cord blood genomic DNA from two Caucasian and two Afro-Caribbean neonates. Caucasian cDNA yielded only two different sequences: G*01011, and one containing a previously reported synonymous substitution. Afro-Caribbean samples yielded these sequences as well as one previously reported conservative (leucine-to-isoleucine) substitution. PCR amplification from genomic DNA samples from both populations using previously published primer pairs generated sequences containing multiple substitutions, many of which were nonsynonymous. More than two sequences were produced from genomic DNA from each individual. In contrast, amplification from the same genomic DNA using new primers complementary to exons of the HLA-G gene yielded the same few sequences generated from cDNA. These results suggest that polymorphism at the HLA-G locus is extremely limited in Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean populations. This suggests that spurious polymorphism has been reported in African Americans due to the use of intron-complementary PCR primers on genomic DNA samples. The monomorphic nature of HLA-G may allow trophoblast to carry out the immunological functions of class I-bearing tissues without compromising successful pregnancy. (+info)
Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) in countries of Southeast Asia compared to the USA, the Caribbean and Africa.
Seroprevalence of HHV-8 has been studied in Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Trinidad, Jamaica and the USA, in both healthy individuals and those infected with HIV. Seroprevalence was found to be low in these countries in both the healthy and the HIV-infected populations. This correlates with the fact that hardly any AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported in these countries. In contrast, the African countries of Ghana, Uganda and Zambia showed high seroprevalences in both healthy and HIV-infected populations. This suggests that human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) may be either a recently introduced virus or one that has extremely low infectivity. Nasopharyngeal and oral carcinoma patients from Malaysia, Hong Kong and Sri Lanka who have very high EBV titres show that only 3/82 (3.7%) have antibody to HHV-8, demonstrating that there is little, if any, cross-reactivity between antibodies to these two gamma viruses. (+info)
Association between the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3-subunit gene and hypertension in blacks.
A polymorphism (C825T) of the G protein beta3-subunit gene has been associated with low renin hypertension in whites. The aim of this study was to examine the C825T polymorphism in relation to hypertension in a population-based study of black people of African origin who have high prevalence of low renin, salt-sensitive hypertension. A total of 428 men and women, aged 40 to 59 years (270 Caribbeans and 158 West Africans), who took part in a population-based survey were studied. All were blacks and first-generation immigrants. The C825T polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction-enzyme digestion. The prevalence of hypertension (supine blood pressures >/=160 systolic and/or 95 mm Hg diastolic or on drug therapy) was 43%. The distribution of the genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with observed frequencies of 4.0% (n=17), 33.6% (n=144), and 62.4% (n=267), respectively. Allele frequencies were 20.8% for C and 79.2% for T. No difference was detected between Caribbeans and West Africans. A 3-fold higher risk of hypertension was found among the carriers of the T variant both as heterozygotes (odds ratio [OR], 3.43 [95% CI, 0.94 to 12.4]) and homozygotes (OR, 3.87 [95% CI, 1. 09 to 13.8]). The estimate of effect and the blood pressure values in the groups carrying the T variant suggested a dominant model for the T allele. This was confirmed by a significant association between the T allele and hypertension (OR, 3.71 [95% CI, 1.05 to 13. 1]), even when adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 1.11 to 15.4]). The study shows, for the first time, a high frequency of the 825T allele in black people, and it provides evidence that the T allele may be a susceptibility factor for the development of hypertension in blacks. Given the high frequency of the T allele, even a 2-fold increased risk of hypertension among the carriers of the T allele might account for 44% of the cases of hypertension in blacks. (+info)
Incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in GUM clinics in South Thames (west) region.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in South Thames (West) between 1995 and 1996, and how it changed among population subgroups. SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Cases of uncomplicated and complicated gonorrhoea diagnosed at 13 GUM clinics in the former South Thames West (STW) Regional Health Authority that reported disaggregate data to the South Thames GUM Clinic Collaborative STD Surveillance Scheme. METHODS: Annual incidence rates (per 100,000) of gonorrhoea diagnoses by sex, age group, ethnic group, area of residence, and year were calculated. Poisson regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RR) to describe the key differences in the variation of gonorrhoea cases by these variables. Relative differences in the incidence of diagnosed gonorrhoea between 1995 and 1996 were investigated by including an interaction between year and the other variables (age group, sex, ethnic group, region) and testing whether any were significant using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Area of residence, sex, age group, and ethnic group were key predictors of the rates of diagnosed gonorrhoea. The risk ratio for gonorrhoea (after adjustment for the other variables) was: 13 times higher among blacks than the white population; twice as high in inner London compared with outer London; and three times lower in the "shire" region compared with outer London. The rate of diagnosed gonorrhoea was significantly higher in the black population in the shire region than the inner London white population. The rate of gonorrhoea diagnosed by GUM clinics from 1995 to 1996 almost doubled in the white population aged 15-44 years, from 16 cases per 100,000 to 30 cases per 100,000 (adjusted RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4), whereas increased rates in the black and Asian/other ethnic groups were not statistically significant (adjusted RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.4; and 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.7 respectively). CONCLUSION: The observed increase in gonorrhoea between 1995 and 1996 occurred mostly among heterosexual white men and women. Overall, the rates of gonorrhoea among young people, especially in the black population and in inner London represent a significant public health problem that may merit further targeted interventions, the effectiveness of which could be monitored through further development of routine surveillance data. (+info)
Screening for depression in African-Caribbean elders.
BACKGROUND: There are increasing numbers of older African-Caribbeans in the UK. Primary care staff often feel less confident about diagnosing depression in this group. Screening instruments may assist in making diagnoses in cross-cultural consultations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of screening instruments for depression in older African-Caribbean people in Manchester, UK. METHODS: We carried out a two-stage study to compare three screening instruments for depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, Brief Assessment Schedule Depression Cards, Caribbean Culture Specific Screen), with a computerized diagnostic interview for mental health disorders in older adults (Geriatric Mental State). The study was set in inner-city Manchester. The subjects were community-resident African-Caribbeans aged 60 years and over; 227 subjects were approached. Of the 160 people screened, 130 agreed to diagnostic interview. The main outcome measures were Spearman correlation coefficients; these were calculated between each screening instrument and the diagnostic interview. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine appropriate sensitivity and specificity for each instrument. RESULTS: The results for the largest subgroup, the Jamaicans (n = 96/130), demonstrated highly significant correlations between screening instruments and diagnostic interview (P < 0.001). Each instrument had a high sensitivity: Brief Assessment Schedule depression cards (cut-off > or =6; sensitivity 90.9% (95% CI 58.8-99.8), specificity 82.1% (95% CI 74.0-90.3)), Caribbean Culture Specific Screen (cut-off > or =6; sensitivity 90.9% (95% CI 58.8-99.8), specificity 74.1% (95% CI 64.8-83.4)), and Geriatric Depression Scale (cut-off > or =4; sensitivity 100% (95% CI 97.1-100), specificity 69.1% (95% CI 59.6-79.2)). CONCLUSIONS: These screening instruments demonstrate high sensitivity levels, if an appropriate cut-off point is used. The culture-specific instrument did not perform better than the traditional instruments. Health professionals should approach the consultation in a culturally sensitive manner and use the validated instrument they are most familiar with. (+info)