Central control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and their interactions in vertebrates.
This review explores the fundamental neuranatomical and functional bases for integration of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in vertebrates and traces their evolution through the vertebrate groups, from primarily water-breathing fish and larval amphibians to facultative air-breathers such as lungfish and some adult amphibians and finally obligate air-breathers among the reptiles, birds, and mammals. A comparative account of respiratory rhythm generation leads to consideration of the changing roles in cardiorespiratory integration for central and peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors and their central projections. We review evidence of a developing role in the control of cardiorespiratory interactions for the partial relocation from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus into the nucleus ambiguus of vagal preganglionic neurons, and in particular those innervating the heart, and for the existence of a functional topography of specific groups of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Finally, we consider the mechanisms generating temporal modulation of heart rate, vasomotor tone, and control of the airways in mammals; cardiorespiratory synchrony in fish; and integration of the cardiorespiratory system during intermittent breathing in amphibians, reptiles, and diving birds. Concluding comments suggest areas for further productive research. (+info)
Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to exercise in hypoxia during impaired neural feedback from muscle.
Reflex mechanisms from contracting skeletal muscle have been shown to be important for cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and extramuscular fuel-mobilization responses in exercise. Furthermore, because hypoxia results in exaggerated metabolic changes in contracting muscle, the present study evaluated whether enhancement of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses by hypoxia during exercise is influenced by neural feedback from contracting muscle. Seven healthy males cycled at 46% maximal O(2) uptake for 20 min both during normoxia and at 11.5% O(2), and both without and with epidural anesthesia (EA; 20 ml 0.25% bupivacain, resulting in cutaneous hypesthesia below T10-T12 and 25% reduction in maximal leg strength). Exercise to exhaustion was also performed at 7.8% O(2). The exercise-induced increases in heart rate; cardiac output; leg blood flow; plasma concentrations of growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and catecholamines; renin activity; glucose production and disappearance; norepinephrine spillover [2, 190 +/- 341 ng/min (exercise at 11.5% O(2)) vs. 988 +/- 95 ng/min (exercise during normoxia)]; lactate release from and glucose uptake in the leg; and the decreases in plasma insulin and free fatty acids were exaggerated in hypoxia (P < 0.05). In muscle, concentrations of lactate, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate were higher, and those of phosphocreatine were lower after exercise in hypoxia compared with normoxia. The exercise-induced increase in mean arterial blood pressure was not affected by hypoxia, but it was reduced by EA [108 +/- 4 mmHg (control) vs. 97 +/- 4 mmHg (EA); P < 0.05], and the reduction was more pronounced during severe hypoxia compared with normoxia. Apart from this, time to exhaustion at extreme hypoxia, circulatory responses, concentrations of neuroendocrine hormones, and extramuscular substrate mobilization were not diminished by EA. In conclusion, in essence the hypoxia-induced enhancement of systemic adaptation to exercise is not mediated by neural feedback from working muscle in humans. (+info)
Carotid baroreflex function during prolonged exercise.
The present investigation was designed to uncouple the hemodynamic physiological effects of thermoregulation from the effects of a progressively increasing central command activation during prolonged exercise. Subjects performed two 1-h bouts of leg cycling exercise with 1) no intervention and 2) continuous infusion of a dextran solution to maintain central venous pressure constant at the 10-min pressure. Volume infusion resulted in a significant reduction in the decrement in mean arterial pressure seen in the control exercise bout (6.7 +/- 1.8 vs. 11.6+/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively). However, indexes of central command such as heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion rose to a similar extent during both exercise conditions. In addition, the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus-response relationship, as measured by using the neck pressure-neck suction technique, was reset from rest to 10 min of exercise and was further reset from 10 to 50 min of exercise in both exercise conditions, with the operating point being shifted toward the reflex threshold. We conclude that the progressive resetting of the carotid baroreflex and the shift of the reflex operating point render the carotid-cardiac reflex ineffectual in counteracting the continued decrement in mean arterial pressure that occurs during the prolonged exercise. (+info)
Hypothalamopontine projections in the rat: anterograde axonal transport studies utilizing light and electron microscopy.
Projections to the basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) from a variety of hypothalamic nuclei were traced in the rat utilizing the anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine. Light microscopy revealed that the lateral hypothalamic area (LH), the posterior hypothalamic area (PH), and the medial and lateral mammillary nuclei (MMN and LMN) are the four major hypothalamic nuclei that give rise to labeled fibers and terminals reaching the rostral medial and dorsomedial BPN subdivisions. Hypothalamopontine fibers extended caudally through the pontine tegmentum dorsal to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis and then coursed ventrally from the main descending bundle toward the ipsilateral basilar pontine gray. Some hypothalamopontine fibers crossed the midline in the tegmental area just dorsal to the pontine gray to terminate in the contralateral BPN. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural features of synaptic boutons formed by axons arising in the LH, PH, MMN, and LMN are similar to one another. All labeled hypothalamopontine axon terminals contained round synaptic vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic junctions with dendritic shafts as well as dendritic appendages, and occasionally with neuronal somata. Some labeled boutons formed the central axon terminal in a glomerular synaptic complex. In summary, the present findings indicate that the hypothalamus projects predominantly to the rostral medial and dorsomedial portions of the BPN which, in turn, provide input to the paraflocculus and vermis of the cerebellum. Since the hypothalamic projection zones in the BPN also receive cerebral cortical input, including limbic-related cortex, the hypothalamopontine system might serve to integrate autonomic or limbic-related functions with movement or somatic motor-related activity. Alternatively, since the cerebellum also receives direct input from the hypothalamus, the BPN may function to provide additional somatic and visceral inputs that are used by the cerebellum to perform the integrative function. (+info)
Stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus modulates firing of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
The present study assessed whether the baroreflex inhibition elicited by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involves altered activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Unit recordings were made from 107 neurons in the NTS in anesthetized rabbits. Intravenous phenylephrine was used to induce a pressor response and to activate baroreflexes. Of the neurons that responded to pressor responses, two-thirds were excited and one-third was inhibited. Stimulation of the PVN inhibited 70% of the phenylephrine-responsive NTS neurons, with or without concurrent baroreceptor stimulation. When PVN stimulation was delivered concurrently with phenylephrine injection, more NTS neuronal inhibition and less excitation occurred than with phenylephrine alone. Usually PVN stimulation inhibited NTS neurons that were excited by pressor responses; less commonly, PVN stimulation excited NTS neurons that were inhibited by pressor responses. The findings are consistent with the view that PVN activation during the defense reaction inhibits baroreflexes by altering firing of NTS neurons. (+info)
Effects of potassium on blood pressure in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant black adolescents.
This study examined the effects of increasing dietary potassium on ambulatory blood pressure nondipping status (<10% decrease in blood pressure from awake to asleep) and cardiovascular reactivity in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant black adolescents. A sample of 58 normotensive (blood pressure, 101/57+/-9/4 mm Hg) black adolescents (aged 13 to 16 years) participated in a 5-day low sodium diet (50 mmol/24 h) followed by a 10-day high sodium diet (150 mmol/24 h NaCl supplement) to determine salt-sensitivity status. Participants showed a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion (24+/-19 to 224+/-65 mmol/24 h) and were identified as salt-sensitive if their mean blood pressure increase was >/=5 mm Hg from the low to high sodium diet. Sixteen salt-sensitive and 42 salt-resistant subjects were then randomly assigned to either a 3-week high potassium diet (80 mmol/24 h) or usual diet control group. Urinary potassium excretion significantly increased in the treatment group (35+/-7 to 57+/-21 mmol/24 h). At baseline, a significantly greater percentage of salt-sensitive (44%) compared with salt-resistant (7%) subjects were nondippers on the basis of diastolic blood pressure classifications (P<0.04). After the dietary intervention, all of the salt-sensitive subjects in the high potassium group achieved dipper status as a result of a drop in nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (daytime, 69 versus 67 mm Hg; nighttime, 69 versus 57 mm Hg). No significant group differences in cardiovascular reactivity were observed. These results suggest that a positive relationship between dietary potassium intake and blood pressure modulation can still exist even when daytime blood pressure is unchanged by a high potassium diet. (+info)
Effect of magnesium deficiency on autonomic circulatory regulation in conscious rats.
A close relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular function has been reported; however, the effect of magnesium deficiency on autonomic cardiovascular regulation has not been clarified. We investigated the effect of magnesium deficiency on the autonomic regulation of oscillations of the R-R interval, arterial blood pressure (BP), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) by using the maximum entropy method in conscious rats. Its effect on baroreflex control of RSNA and heart rate were also investigated with a logistic function curve. Mean BP in magnesium-deficient rats was higher than that in control rats (mean+/-SE, 114.0+/-4.3 versus 101.6+/-3.4 mm Hg; P<0.05), and urinary excretion of catecholamine was increased by 2.4-fold. The fraction of low-frequency oscillation of RSNA was reduced (31.7+/-0.9% versus 36.2+/-1.5%, P<0.05) and the correlation between low-frequency oscillations of BP and RSNA was weakened in magnesium-deficient rats. There was no difference in high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval, which is related to vagal tone, whereas sympathetic tone became dominant (square root of low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of R-R interval, 1.00+/-0.05 versus 0.67+/-0.05, P<0.0001) in magnesium-deficient rats. The maximal gain in the BP-RSNA relation tended to be reduced in magnesium-deficient rats (-7.7+/-1.1% versus -12.2+/-1.9%/mm Hg, P=0. 07); however, that in the BP-heart rate relation was increased (-8. 1+/-0.7 versus -4.5+/-0.5 bpm/mm Hg, P<0.01). These results suggest that magnesium deficiency induces sympathetic excitation, which results in hypertension but attenuates the baroreflex-related response of sympathetic nerves, whereas magnesium deficiency enhances the sensitivity of the sinus node to autonomic regulation. (+info)
Dose response of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol to the CCK-B agonist pentagastrin.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an abundant neurotransmitter in brain. Its functional significance in humans is incompletely understood, but it may modulate activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the effects of varying doses (0 to 0.8 microgram/kg) of the CCK-B agonist pentagastrin on adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol release in healthy human subjects. We also examined anxiety, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) responses. Pentagastrin induced large (up to 520% increase over baseline), significant and very rapid, dose-dependent elevations in ACTH and cortisol levels. Significant elevations in HR and BP were seen at all doses, without clear dose-response relationships. Anxious distress and symptom responses were also somewhat dose dependent; but hormonal responses were more robustly linked to pentagastrin dose than to these subjective measures. The HPA axis response to the CCK-B agonist pentagastrin may be a direct pharmacological effect. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms and the physiological significance of CCK-mediated modulation of the human neuroendocrine stress axis. (+info)