(1/3277) Gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in progression to heart failure.

Gender-related differences responsible for the better prognosis of females with heart failure have not been clearly established. To address this issue, we investigated potential gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. Echocardiograms and myocyte growth were compared between males and females at compensated (2, 4, and 6 months) and decompensated (18 months in males and 24 months in females) stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Although left ventricular diastolic dimensions did not differ significantly between failing male and female rats, fractional shortening declined significantly only in failing males. Myocyte cross-sectional area did not change after 4 months of age in both genders, which is likely to be responsible for the absence of a change in left ventricular wall thickness during the progression to heart failure. Myocyte volume and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in males than females at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, although there were no significant differences at the failing stage. Reduced adaptive hypertrophic reserve was observed in males, which is likely to contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of males with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

(2/3277) Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection.

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

(3/3277) Cellular mechanisms of altered contractility in the hypertrophied heart: big hearts, big sparks.

To investigate the cellular mechanisms for altered Ca2+ homeostasis and contractility in cardiac hypertrophy, we measured whole-cell L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L), whole-cell Ca2+ transients ([Ca2+]i), and Ca2+ sparks in ventricular cells from 6-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and from age- and sex-matched Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley control rats. By echocardiography, SHR hearts had cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced contractility (increased fractional shortening) and no signs of heart failure. SHR cells had a voltage-dependent increase in peak [Ca2+]i amplitude (at 0 mV, 1330+/-62 nmol/L [SHRs] versus 836+/-48 nmol/L [controls], P<0.05) that was not associated with changes in ICa,L density or kinetics, resting [Ca2+]i, or Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). SHR cells had increased time of relaxation. Ca2+ sparks from SHR cells had larger average amplitudes (173+/-192 nmol/L [SHRs] versus 109+/-64 nmol/L [control]; P<0.05), which was due to redistribution of Ca2+ sparks to a larger amplitude population. This change in Ca2+ spark amplitude distribution was not associated with any change in the density of ryanodine receptors, calsequestrin, junctin, triadin 1, Ca2+-ATPase, or phospholamban. Therefore, SHRs with cardiac hypertrophy have increased contractility, [Ca2+]i amplitude, time to relaxation, and average Ca2+ spark amplitude ("big sparks"). Importantly, big sparks occurred without alteration in the trigger for SR Ca2+ release (ICa,L), SR Ca2+ content, or the expression of several SR Ca2+-cycling proteins. Thus, cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs is linked with an alteration in the coupling of Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels and the release of Ca2+ from the SR, leading to big sparks and enhanced contractility. Alterations in the microdomain between L-type Ca2+ channels and SR Ca2+ release channels may underlie the changes in Ca2+ homeostasis observed in cardiac hypertrophy. Modulation of SR Ca2+ release may provide a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac hypertrophy and for its progression to heart failure and sudden death.  (+info)

(4/3277) Rho family small G proteins play critical roles in mechanical stress-induced hypertrophic responses in cardiac myocytes.

-Mechanical stress induces a variety of hypertrophic responses, such as activation of protein kinases, reprogramming of gene expression, and an increase in protein synthesis. In the present study, to elucidate how mechanical stress induces such events, we examined the role of Rho family small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) in mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the C3 exoenzyme, which abrogates Rho functions, suppressed stretch-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs). Overexpression of the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI), dominant-negative mutants of RhoA (DNRhoA), or DNRac1 significantly inhibited stretch-induced activation of transfected ERK2. Overexpression of constitutively active mutants of RhoA slightly activated ERK2 in cardiac myocytes. Overexpression of C-terminal Src kinase, which inhibits functions of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, or overexpression of DNRas had no effect on stretch-induced activation of transfected ERK2. The promoter activity of skeletal alpha-actin and c-fos genes was increased by stretch, and these increases were completely inhibited by either cotransfection of Rho-GDI or pretreatment with C3 exoenzyme. Mechanical stretch increased phenylalanine incorporation into cardiac myocytes by approximately 1.5-fold compared with control, and this increase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with C3 exoenzyme. Overexpression of Rho-GDI or DNRhoA did not affect angiotensin II-induced activation of ERK. ERKs were activated by culture media conditioned by stretch of cardiomyocytes without any treatment, but not of cardiomyocytes with pretreatment by C3 exoenzyme. These results suggest that the Rho family of small G proteins plays critical roles in mechanical stress-induced hypertrophic responses.  (+info)

(5/3277) TAFII250, Egr-1, and D-type cyclin expression in mice and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin.

Differential display identified that gene fragment HA220 homologous to the transcriptional activator factor II 250 (TAFII250) gene, or CCG1, was increased in hypertrophied rodent heart. To determine whether TAFII250 gene expression is modified after cardiac damage, we measured TAFII250 expression in vivo in mouse hearts after injection of the cardiotoxic agent doxorubicin (DXR) and in vitro in DXR-treated isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. In vivo atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), Egr-1, and TAFII250 expression increased with dose and time after a single DXR injection, but only ANF and beta-MHC expression were increased after multiple injections. After DXR treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes we found decreased ANF, alpha-MHC, Egr-1, and TAFII250 expression. Expression of the TAFII250-regulated genes, the D-type cyclins, was increased after a single injection in adult mice and was decreased in DXR-treated cardiomyocytes. Thus expression of Erg-1, TAFII250, and the D-type cyclins is modulated after cardiotoxic damage in adult and neonatal heart.  (+info)

(6/3277) Heart hypertrophy induced by levothyroxine aggravates ischemic lesions and reperfusion arrhythmias in rats.

AIM: To develop a cardiac hypertrophic model in rats. METHODS: Rats were i.p. levothyroxine 0.5 mg.kg-1.d-1 x 10 d. The action potentials of right papillary muscles were recorded by standard glass-microelectrode technique. The left coronary artery was ligated followed by reperfusion and the apparent infarcted zone (AIZ) was determined by tetracycline fluoresence, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) product in myocardium were also measured. RESULTS: In the rats treated by levothyroxine, the heart was hypertrophic and the action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) were prolonged, the APD20, APD50, APD90, and ERP were prolonged by 80%, 79%, 74%, and 68%, respectively. No changes in resting potential (RP), action potential amplitude (APA), and Vmax were produced. The incidence of heart arrest (8/8) and the risk of death (67 +/- 0) induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats with hypertrophic heart was higher than those in normal rats (4/10 and 44 +/- 19, respectively). The AIZ was expanded markedly in hypertrophic heart, and attenuated by lidocaine and propranolol. CONCLUSION: Levothyroxine-induced heart hypertrophy is a suitable model for severe ischemia and arrhythmias in rats.  (+info)

(7/3277) A case of eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma.

This report describes a patient with eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma. A 50-year-old man presented with a complaint of precordial pain. However, the only abnormal finding on examinatioin was eosinophilia (1617 eosinophils/microl). Three years later, the patient developed chronic eczema, and was diagnosed with erythroderma posteczematosa. One year later, a tumor was detected in the right auricule, and a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was made, based on the biopsy findings. The patient developed progressive dyspnea 6 months later and was found to have cardiomegaly and a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (17%). A diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis was made based on the results of a right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. The eosinophilic myocarditis and erythrodrema were treated with steroids with improvement of both the eosinophilia and left ventricular function.  (+info)

(8/3277) Transcriptional activation of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in ventricular cardiac myocytes by hypertrophic agonists.

Myocardial hypertrophy is associated with increased basal glucose metabolism. Basal glucose transport into cardiac myocytes is mediated by the GLUT1 isoform of glucose transporters, whereas the GLUT4 isoform is responsible for regulatable glucose transport. Treatment of neonatal cardiac myocytes with the hypertrophic agonist 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine increased expression of Glut1 mRNA relative to Glut4 mRNA. To study the transcriptional regulation of GLUT1 expression, myocytes were transfected with luciferase reporter constructs under the control of the Glut1 promoter. Stimulation of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine induced transcription from the Glut1 promoter, which was inhibited by cotransfection with the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases CL100 and MKP-3. Cotransfection of the myocytes with constitutively active versions of Ras and MEK1 or an estrogen-inducible version of Raf1 also stimulated transcription from the Glut1 promoter. Hypertrophic induction of the Glut1 promoter was also partially sensitive to inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and was strongly inhibited by cotransfection with dominant-negative Ras. Thus, Ras activation and pathways downstream of Ras mediate induction of the Glut1 promoter during myocardial hypertrophy.  (+info)