Cerebral injury after cardiac surgery: identification of a group at extraordinary risk. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group (McSPI) and the Ischemia Research Education Foundation (IREF) Investigators. (1/3141)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral injury after cardiac surgery is now recognized as a serious and costly healthcare problem mandating immediate attention. To effect solution, those subgroups of patients at greatest risk must be identified, thereby allowing efficient implementation of new clinical strategies. No such subgroup has been identified; however, patients undergoing intracardiac surgery are thought to be at high risk, but comprehensive data regarding specific risk, impact on cost, and discharge disposition are not available. METHODS: We prospectively studied 273 patients enrolled from 24 diverse US medical centers, who were undergoing intracardiac and coronary artery surgery. Patient data were collected using standardized methods and included clinical, historical, specialized testing, neurological outcome and autopsy data, and measures of resource utilization. Adverse outcomes were defined a priori and determined after database closure by a blinded independent panel. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to estimate the relative risks associated with clinical history and intraoperative and postoperative events. RESULTS: Adverse cerebral outcomes occurred in 16% of patients (43/273), being nearly equally divided between type I outcomes (8.4%; 5 cerebral deaths, 16 nonfatal strokes, and 2 new TIAs) and type II outcomes (7.3%; 17 new intellectual deterioration persisting at hospital discharge and 3 newly diagnosed seizures). Associated resource utilization was significantly increased--prolonging median intensive care unit stay from 3 days (no adverse cerebral outcome) to 8 days (type I; P<0.001) and from 3 to 6 days (type II; P<0.001), and increasing hospitalization by 50% (type II, P=0.04) to 100% (type I, P<0.001). Furthermore, specialized care after hospital discharge was frequently necessary in those with type I outcomes, in that only 31% returned home compared with 85% of patients without cerebral complications (P<0.001). Significant risk factors for type I outcomes related primarily to embolic phenomena, including proximal aortic atherosclerosis, intracardiac thrombus, and intermittent clamping of the aorta during surgery. For type II outcomes, risk factors again included proximal aortic atherosclerosis, as well as a preoperative history of endocarditis, alcohol abuse, perioperative dysrhythmia or poorly controlled hypertension, and the development of a low-output state after cardiopulmonary bypass. CONCLUSIONS: These prospective multicenter findings demonstrate that patients undergoing intracardiac surgery combined with coronary revascularization are at formidable risk, in that 1 in 6 will develop cerebral complications that are frequently costly and devastating. Thus, new strategies for perioperative management--including technical and pharmacological interventions--are now mandated for this subgroup of cardiac surgery patients.  (+info)

A critical appraisal of the quality of the management of infective endocarditis. (2/3141)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of the management of infective endocarditis. BACKGROUND: Although many guidelines on the management of infective endocarditis exist, the quality of this management has not been evaluated. METHODS: We collected data on all patients (116) hospitalized with infective endocarditis over 1 year in all hospitals in the Rhone-Alpes region (France). RESULTS: Prophylactic antibiotics were not given before infective endocarditis to 8/11 cardiac patients at risk and who underwent an at risk procedure. Among the 55 cardiac patients at risk and with fever and who consulted a physician, blood cultures were not performed before antibiotic therapy was initiated for 32 patients. In-hospital antibiotic therapy was incorrect for 23 patients. The portal of entry was not treated for 16/61 patients with an accessible portal of entry. Among the 19 patients who had severe heart failure or fever persisting more than 2 weeks in spite of antibiotic therapy and who could have undergone early surgery, surgery was delayed for five, and not performed for three. Overall, the average score was 15/20. CONCLUSIONS: More information on the management of infective endocarditis should be widely disseminated to the physicians' and the dentists' communities and to the patients at risk.  (+info)

Biventricular repair approach in ducto-dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal left ventricle. (3/3141)

OBJECTIVES: Increased afterload and multilevel LV obstruction is constant. We assumed that restoration of normal loading conditions by relief of LV obstructions promotes its growth, provided that part of the cardiac output was preoperatively supported by the LV, whatever the echocardiographic indexes. BACKGROUND: Whether to perform uni- or biventricular repair in ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV (hypoplastic left heart syndrome classes II & III) remains unanswered. Echocardiographic criteria have been proposed for surgical decision. METHODS: Twenty ducto dependent neonates presented with this anomaly. All had aortic coarctation associated to multilevel LV obstruction. Preoperative echocardiographic assessment showed: mean EDLW of 12.4 +/- 3.03 ml/m2 and mean Rhodes score of -1.73 +/-0.8. Surgery consisted in relief of LV outflow tract obstruction by coarctation repair in all associated to aortic commissurotomy in one and ASD closure in 2. RESULTS: There were 3 early and 2 late deaths. Failure of biventricular repair and LV growth was obvious in patients with severe anatomic mitral stenosis. The other demonstrated growth of the left heart. At hospital discharge the EDLVV was 19.4+/-3.12 ml/m2 (p = 0.0001) and the Rhodes score was -0.38+/-1.01 (p = 0.0003). Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation rates at 5 years were 72.5% and 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular repair can be proposed to ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV provided that all anatomical causes of LV obstruction can be relieved. Secondary growth of the left heart then occurs; however, the reoperation rate is high.  (+info)

Echocardiographic and morphological correlations in tetralogy of Fallot. (4/3141)

AIMS: Our aim was to clarify the location and structure of the outlet septum relative to the free-standing subpulmonary infundibulum in the setting of tetralogy of Fallot and to examine its relationship to the other components of the subpulmonary outflow tract, determining their potential influence on clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied prospectively 41 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (mean age 14 +/- 10.9 months) prior to surgical repair, and compared them with 15 patients undergoing closure of a ventricular septal defect associated with malalignment of the outlet septum but no subpulmonary infundibular stenosis (Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect), and 20 healthy controls. We also examined available autopsied hearts from cases with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot (8) and Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect (13). Data were indexed for body surface area, and diameter of the tricuspid valve, respectively. The overall length of the subpulmonary infundibulum, including the extent of the muscular outlet septum, was significantly greater for patients with tetralogy of Fallot compared to normals (2.34 +/- 0.6 vs 1.46 +/- 0.34 cm/BSA0.5, P<0.001), whereas the difference between those with tetralogy of Fallot and an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect was confined to the degree of narrowing of the subpulmonary outlet (0.43 +/- 0.22 vs 2.17 +/- 0.64 cm/BSA0.5, P<0.001). Within the tetralogy of Fallot group, there were linear relationships between deviation of the outlet septum (r= -0.61, P<0.005) and the diameter of the pulmonary valvar orifice (r=0.75, P<0.001), suggesting that growth of the pulmonary arteries may be related to this feature. When patients requiring a transannular patch as part of their surgical repair were compared with those not needing this procedure, differences were found in the diameter of the pulmonary valvar orifice and the pulmonary trunk, but not in the dimensions of the outlet septum. CONCLUSION: The position of the outlet septum in relationship to the remainder of the muscular subpulmonary infundibulum represents a hallmark of tetralogy of Fallot, permitting its differentiation from Eisenmenger ventricular septal defects and normal hearts.  (+info)

Modified Fontan operation. Considerations for the determination of the appropriate procedure. (5/3141)

BACKGROUND: Although the surgical results of the modified Fontan operation continues to improve, there are various advantages and disadvantages in terms of the post operative condition associated with the Fontan modifications. Late morbidity and mortality are mainly due to arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications, systemic venous hypertension and infective endocarditis. We reported our experience of the modified Fontan operation to determine an appropriate procedure for each patient. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (ranging from the age 1-14 years) underwent a modified Fontan operation including a lateral tunnel (n = 1), extracardiac conduit (n = 2) and autogenous atrial tunnel (n = 4). There was one hospital death due to sepsis in which the patient underwent lateral tunnel procedure. The mean follow up of another six patients was 20 months (ranging from 1-39 months) and all patients were classified as NYHA class I, and remained in normal sinus rhythm without any thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS: When using the autogenous atrial tunnel, there are potential advantages; it is not associated with thromboembolism or endocarditis and has growth potential. However, in high-risk patients with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, impaired ventricular function and pre-operative atrial arrhythmias, it appears reasonable to use an extracardiac conduit.  (+info)

Continuous quality improvement decreases length of stay and adverse events: a case study in an interventional cardiology program. (6/3141)

A study was performed to assess the effectiveness of continuous quality improvement in achieving a better quality of care for patients undergoing coronary interventions. Increasing utilization of new coronary interventional devices has incurred a higher incidence of complications, prolonged hospital stay, and related costs. Using a clinical information system, we adopted continuous quality improvement to control the incidence of complications and postprocedural length of stay. Multiple regression analysis and a matched case-control study were performed to detect complications related to postprocedural length of stay and their causes among 342 patients. The results led to the modification of the postprocedural heparin anticoagulation protocol, which was followed by the introduction of a ticlopidine-based poststent anticoagulation regimen. Two sequential groups of patients (n = 261, n = 266) were selected to compare postprocedural length of stay and frequency of complications with those for the first group. Adjustments were made for patients and procedural characteristics through stratification and multiple regression methods. Blood transfusion was the most important predictor of prolonged hospital stay (partial R2 = 0.26, P < 0.01). A high level of postprocedural anticoagulation and intracoronary stent use were significantly associated with blood transfusion (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, respectively). The comparison among the three groups showed that heparin protocol change reduced only postprocedural length of stay (P < 0.001) for patients without stents, whereas the stent change in anticoagulation protocol significantly reduced both transfusion and hospital stay for patients with stents (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, respectively). Continuous quality improvement based on clinical information is promising to control both complications and hospital costs. Physician involvement is necessary throughout the process.  (+info)

Primary angioplasty for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction: experience at two community hospitals without cardiac surgery. (7/3141)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to establish the safety and efficacy of primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at two community hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: Though randomized studies indicate that primary angioplasty in AMI may result in superior outcomes compared with fibrinolytic therapy, the performance of primary angioplasty at hospitals without cardiac surgery is debated. METHODS: Three experienced operators performed 506 consecutive immediate coronary angiograms with primary angioplasty when appropriate in patients with suspected AMI at two community hospitals without cardiac surgery, following established rigorous program criteria. RESULTS: Clinical high risk predictors (Killip class 3 or 4, age > or = 75 years, anterior AMI, out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation) and/or angiographic high risk predictors (left main or three-vessel disease or ejection fraction <45%) were present in 69.6%. Angioplasty was performed in 66.2%, with a median time from emergency department presentation to first angiogram of 94 min and a procedural success rate of 94.3%. The in-hospital mortality for the entire study population was 5.3%. Of those without initial cardiogenic shock, the in-hospital mortality was 3.0%. Of 300 patients who were discharged after primary angioplasty, only four died within the first 6 months, with 97.7% follow-up. No patient died or needed emergent aortocoronary bypass surgery because of new myocardial jeopardy caused by a complication of the cardiac catheterization or angioplasty procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate coronary angiography with primary angioplasty when appropriate in patients with AMI can be performed safely and effectively in community hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery when rigorous program criteria are established.  (+info)

Transcatheter closure of muscular ventricular septal defects with the amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder: initial clinical applications in children. (8/3141)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to close muscular ventricular septal defects (MVSDs) in children, with a new device, the Amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder (AVSDO). BACKGROUND: The design of previously used devices for transcatheter closure of MVSDs is not ideal for this purpose and their use has been limited by several drawbacks. METHODS: Six patients, aged 3 to 10 years, with MVSDs underwent transcatheter closure using the AVSDO. The device is a modified self-centering and repositionable Amplatzer device that consists of two low profile disks made of Nitinol wire mesh with a 7-mm connecting waist. The prosthesis size (connecting waist diameter) was chosen according to the measured balloon stretched VSD diameters. A 6-F or 7-F sheath was used for the delivery of the AVSDO. Fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography were utilized for optimal guidance. RESULTS: The location of the defect was midmuscular in five patients and beneath the pulmonary valve in one. The balloon stretched MVSD diameter ranged from 6 to 11 mm. Device placement was successful in all patients, and complete occlusion occurred in all six patients (95% confidence interval 54.06% to 100%). Two patients developed transient complete left bundle branch block. No other complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This encouraging initial clinical success indicates that the AVSDO is a promising device for transcatheter closure of MVSDs in children. Further clinical trials and longer follow-up are needed before the widespread use of this technique can be recommended.  (+info)