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(1/240) Card10 is a novel caspase recruitment domain/membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member that interacts with BCL10 and activates NF-kappa B.

BCL10 belongs to the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of proteins that regulate apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Analysis of BCL10-deficient mice has revealed that BCL10 mediates NF-kappaB activation by antigen receptors in B and T cells. We recently identified a subclass of CARD proteins (CARD9, CARD11, and CARD14) that may function to connect BCL10 to multiple upstream signaling pathways. We report here that CARD10 is a novel BCL10 interactor that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, a class of proteins that function to organize signaling complexes at plasma membranes. When expressed in cells, CARD10 binds to BCL10 and signals the activation of NF-kappaB through its N-terminal effector CARD domain. We propose that CARD10 functions as a molecular scaffold for the assembly of a BCL10 signaling complex that activates NF-kappaB.  (+info)

(2/240) CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family members that interact with BCL10 and activate NF-kappa B.

The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is a protein-binding module that mediates the assembly of CARD-containing proteins into apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling complexes. We report here that CARD protein 11 (CARD11) and CARD protein 14 (CARD14) are novel CARD-containing proteins that belong to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, a class of proteins that functions as molecular scaffolds for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at specialized regions of the plasma membrane. CARD11 and CARD14 have homologous structures consisting of an N-terminal CARD domain, a central coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal tripartite domain comprised of a PDZ domain, an Src homology 3 domain, and a GUK domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The CARD domains of both CARD11 and CARD14 associate specifically with the CARD domain of BCL10, a signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB through the IkappaB kinase complex in response to upstream stimuli. When expressed in cells, CARD11 and CARD14 activate NF-kappaB and induce the phosphorylation of BCL10. These findings suggest that CARD11 and CARD14 are novel MAGUK family members that function as upstream activators of BCL10 and NF-kappaB signaling.  (+info)

(3/240) TUCAN, an antiapoptotic caspase-associated recruitment domain family protein overexpressed in cancer.

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARDs) are protein interaction domains that participate in activation or suppression of CARD-carrying members of the caspase family of apoptosis-inducing proteases. A novel CARD-containing protein was identified that is overexpressed in some types of cancer and that binds and suppresses activation of procaspase-9, which we term TUCAN (tumor-up-regulated CARD-containing antagonist of caspase nine). The CARD domain of TUCAN selectively binds itself and procaspase-9. TUCAN interferes with binding of Apaf1 to procaspase-9 and suppresses caspase activation induced by the Apaf1 activator, cytochrome c. Overexpression of TUCAN in cells by stable or transient transfection inhibits apoptosis and caspase activation induced by Apaf1/caspase-9-dependent stimuli, including Bax, VP16, and staurosporine, but not by Apaf1/caspase-9-independent stimuli, Fas and granzyme B. High levels of endogenous TUCAN protein were detected in several tumor cell lines and in colon cancer specimens, correlating with shorter patient survival. Thus, TUCAN represents a new member of the CARD family that selectively suppresses apoptosis induced via the mitochondrial pathway for caspase activation.  (+info)

(4/240) CARDINAL, a novel caspase recruitment domain protein, is an inhibitor of multiple NF-kappa B activation pathways.

Proteins possessing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) motif have been implicated in pathways leading to activation of caspases or NF-kappaB in the context of apoptosis or inflammation, respectively. Here we report the identification of a novel protein, CARDINAL, that contains a CARD motif and also exhibits a high degree of homology to the C terminus of DEFCAP/NAC, a recently described member of the Apaf-1/Nod-1 family. In contrast with the majority of CARD proteins described to date, CARDINAL failed to promote apoptosis or NF-kappaB activation. Rather, CARDINAL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation associated with overexpression of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, RIP, RICK, Bcl10, and TRADD, or through ligand-induced stimulation of the interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CARDINAL interacts with the regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, IKKgamma (NEMO), providing a molecular basis for CARDINAL function. Thus, CARDINAL is a novel regulator of NF-kappaB activation in the context of pro-inflammatory signals.  (+info)

(5/240) CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis.

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARD) are protein-protein interaction modules found extensively in proteins that play important roles in apoptosis, NFkappaB activation, and cytokine regulation. In this study we identified a novel human protein, CARD-8, which contains a C-terminal CARD domain with high similarity to the CARD domain of caspase-1/ICE. We demonstrate that CARD-8 interacts physically with caspase-1 and negatively regulates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta generation in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. CARD-8 binds also to ICEBERG and pseudo-ICE, two other recently identified proteins, which bind to the CARD domain of caspase-1 and negatively regulate its activity. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that CARD-8 is expressed mainly in monocytes, placenta, lymph nodes, and spleen. This pattern of expression is consistent with caspase-1 expression in the same cells and tissues. CARD-8 was also found to negatively regulate NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha stimulation and by ectopically expressed RICK, suggesting that this protein may control cell survival. Consistent with these results, stable expression of CARD-8 in U937 or THP-1 cells sensitizes the cells to differentiation-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of CARD-8 can also induce apoptosis in transfected cells. The results suggest that CARD-8 represents a new signaling molecule involved in the regulation of caspase-1 and NF-kappaB activation.  (+info)

(6/240) TUCAN/CARDINAL and DRAL participate in a common pathway for modulation of NF-kappaB activation.

Proteins containing the caspase recruiting domain (CARD) have emerged as critical regulators of different signal transduction pathways, including those controlling apoptosis and activation of necrosis factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor. TUCAN/CARDINAL is a recently identified CARD-containing protein involved in regulation of caspases and NF-kappaB activation. We find that TUCAN/CARDINAL associates with DRAL, a p53-responsive gene implicated in induction of apoptosis. We also show that, whereas TUCAN/CARDINAL exerts a suppressive effect on NF-kappaB activity, expression of DRAL results in enhancement of NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our observations suggest that DRAL and TUCAN/CARDINAL may participate in a regulatory mechanism that coordinates cellular responses controlled by NF-kappaB transcription factor.  (+info)

(7/240) CARD11 mediates factor-specific activation of NF-kappaB by the T cell receptor complex.

NF-kappaB is a critical target of signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, but how TCR signaling activates NF-kappaB is poorly understood. We have developed an expression cloning strategy that can identify catalytic and noncatalytic molecules that participate in different pathways of NF-kappaB activation. Screening of a mouse thymus cDNA library yielded CARD11, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family member containing CARD, PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains. Using a CARD-deleted variant of CARD11 and RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that CARD11 mediates NF-kappaB activation by alphaCD3/alphaCD28 cross-linking and PMA/ionomycin treatment, but not by TNFalpha or dsRNA. CARD11 is not required for TCR-mediated induction of NFAT or AP-1. CARD11 functions upstream of the IkappaB-kinase (IKK) complex and cooperates with Bcl10 in a CARD domain-dependent manner. RNAi-rescue experiments suggest that the CARD, coiled-coil, SH3 and GUK domains of CARD11 are critical for its signaling function. These results implicate CARD11 in factor- specific activation of NF-kappaB by the TCR complex and establish a role for a MAGUK family member in antigen receptor signaling.  (+info)

(8/240) CARD6 is a modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Nod1- and Cardiak-mediated pathways.

We cloned a novel cDNA derived from the CARD6 gene locus on chromosome 5p12 of 311 amino acids in length. By immunoprecipitation we detected specific binding of this CARD6-encoding protein to Nod1 (CARD4), Cardiak (Rip2/Rick), NAC (NALP1/DEFCAP/CARD7), and TUCAN (CARD8/Cardinal/NDPP/Dakar), caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing proteins implicated in NF-kappa B and caspase-1 activation but not to other CARD family proteins. Cardiak and Nod1 (but not other CARD proteins) also exhibited opposing effects on CARD6 protein phosphorylation and expression, providing further evidence of functional interactions among these proteins in cells. In transfection experiments, the CARD6 protein suppressed NF-kappa B induction by Nod1 or Cardiak but did not interfere with NF-kappa B activation by the CARD-containing adapter protein Bcl10 or the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, demonstrating specificity of CARD6 for Nod-1 and Cardiak-dependent pathways. In contrast to its effects on Nod1- and Cardiak-dependent NF-kappa B activation, CARD6 did not interfere with caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1 beta secretion induced by Cardiak or Nod1. CARD6 also did not affect caspase activation and apoptosis induced by overexpression of Fas, Bax, or other pro-apoptotic stimuli. Thus, CARD6 represents a selective modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Cardiak and Nod1, adding to the repertoire of CARD-family proteins implicated in inflammatory responses and innate immunity.  (+info)