(1/1469) Long-term transplantability and morphological stability of three experimentally induced urinary bladder carcinomas in rats.
Three transitional cell carcinomas induced in Fischer 344 rats by a methylcholanthrene pellet or a foreign body inserted locally into the bladder have been serially transplanted in the syngeneic strain for up to 6.5 years. There have been no changes in the individual morphological characteristics of the tumors during this time. Cells cultured in vitro for varying numbers of passages reproduce regularly the morphology of each tumor when they are injected back into the animals and results from a microcytotoxicity assay for cellular immunity indicate that they retain a common, bladder tumor-specific antigen. These tumors are useful for research in turmo biology and are offered to other scientists seeking transplantable carcinomas for experimentation. (+info)
(2/1469) Natural history of papillary lesions of the urinary bladder in schistosomiasis.
Variable epithelial hyperplasia was observed in urinary bladder of nine capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) when examined at cystotomy 94 to 164 weeks after infection with Schistosoma haematobium. These hosts were followed for 24 to 136 weeks postcystotomy to determine the status of bladder lesions in relation to duration of infection and to ascertain whether lesion samples removed at cystotomy reestablished themselves in autologous and heterologous transfers. There was involution of urothelial hyperplasia in eight of nine animals and no evidence for establishment of transplanted bladder lesions. (+info)
(3/1469) Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop.
The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2. (+info)
(4/1469) Tumor-induced interleukin-10 inhibits type 1 immune responses directed at a tumor antigen as well as a non-tumor antigen present at the tumor site.
Interleukin (IL)-10 is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that has been found to be present at the tumor site in a wide variety of human cancers, including transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Using a murine bladder tumor (MB49), which we show to express the male transplantation antigen (HY), we tested the hypothesis that IL-10 at the tumor site can block the generation of a tumor-specific type 1 immune response. We show that, despite its expression of HY, MB49 fails to prime for an HY-specific type 1 (IFN-gamma) response in normal female mice. Although MB49 does not constitutively produce IL-10, our data support a model whereby MB49 induces infiltrating cells to produce IL-10. This feature rendered the IL-10 knockout (KO) mouse, whose infiltrating cells are incapable of IL-10 production, a suitable model in which to study MB49 in the absence of IL-10. When injected into IL-10 KO mice, MB49 does prime for an HY-specific, type 1 immune response. Furthermore, IL-10 KO mice show prolonged survival and an increased capacity to reject tumors as compared with normal mice. We also tested the ability of tumor-induced IL-10 to inhibit immunization to a non-tumor antigen present at the tumor site. When vaccinia virus encoding beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is injected into the tumors of normal mice, no beta-gal-specific IFN-gamma response is mounted. However, when this same viral construct is injected into the tumors of IL-10 KO mice, it produces a strong beta-gal-specific, IFN-gamma response. These studies demonstrate that tumor-induced IL-10 can block the generation of a tumor-specific type 1 immune response as well as subvert attempts to elicit a type 1 immune response to a non-tumor antigen at the tumor site. (+info)
(5/1469) Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis. (+info)
(6/1469) Interleukin-2 gene transfer into human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is one of the human cancers most responsive to immunotherapy, and local interleukin-2 (IL-2) production appears to be an important requirement for immunotherapy to be effective. In this study, we engineered two human bladder cancer cell lines (RT112 and EJ) to constitutively release human IL-2 by retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Following infection and selection, stable and consistent production of biologically active IL-2 was demonstrated at both the mRNA and the protein level. Morphology, in vitro growth rate and proliferation, as well as other cytokine gene mRNA or membrane adhesion receptor expression, were not altered in IL-2 transduced cells as compared to their parental or control vector-infected counterparts. Moreover, IL-2 engineered cells lost their tumorigenicity into nu/nu mice and the mechanism of rejection appeared to involve multiple host effector cell populations, among which a prominent role was played by neutrophils and radiosensitive cells. These findings may offer support to the development of an IL-2-based gene therapy approach to human bladder cancer. (+info)
(7/1469) Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinogenesis is associated with down-regulation of NF1 tumor suppressor gene in vivo and in vitro.
The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T24 (representing grades 1 to 3, respectively). Decreased NF1 gene expression was observed in 23 of 29 (83%) TCC specimens as estimated by immunohistochemistry, the decrease being more pronounced in high-grade tumors. NF1 mRNA levels were markedly lower in TCC tissue compared with adjacent non-neoplastic urothelium, as studied by in situ hybridization for grade 3 TCC. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that TCC cell lines expressed NF1 protein at different levels, expression being almost undetectable in T24 (grade 3) cells. Northern blotting for cell lines demonstrated reduced NF1 mRNA levels in grade 3 TCC cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cell lines and selected grade 2 and grade 3 tissue samples demonstrated NF1 type II mRNA isoform predominance in all samples studied. Our results show that both NF1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in high-grade TCC, suggesting that alterations of NF1 gene expression may be involved in bladder TCC carcinogenesis. (+info)
(8/1469) Overexpression of the wild type p73 gene in human bladder cancer.
p73, a first p53 relative, was recently identified and shown to be monoallelically expressed in a number of different human tissues. To determine the potential role of this gene in human bladder cancer, we investigated p73 expression levels, allelic expression patterns, and analysed p73 mutations in 23 unselected primary invasive bladder cancers with matched normal tissues and in seven bladder cancer cell lines. In a comparison between normal and tumor tissues using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we found that p73 was overexpressed in 22/23 bladder cancers, sometimes as great as 20-fold. Allelic expression analysis using a C/T polymorphism in exon 2 and a newly identified T/C polymorphism in exon 5 revealed that p73 was biallelically expressed in both normal bladder and cancer tissues, suggesting that p73 is not imprinted in bladder tissue. Mutation screening of the p73 gene in bladder cancer DNAs using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing revealed no tumor-specific mutations in any coding exons of the p73 gene. These data suggest that the p73 is unlikely to be a tumor suppressor gene, but that overexpression of p73 may contribute to tumorigenesis in bladder cancer. (+info)