Overexpression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in a human thyroid carcinoma cell line results in overgrowth of the confluent cultures.
Recent reports indicate that a gain-of-function mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) inhibits cell growth in the cartilaginous growth plates. These results suggest that FGFR-3 may be the receptor transducing growth inhibitory signals. Using reverse transcription-PCR we examined seven papillary thyroid carcinomas to determine FGFR-3 expression. Six out of the seven papillary carcinomas expressed FGFR-3. To clarify the role of FGFR-3 in thyroid carcinoma, FGFR-3 was overexpressed in an established human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line. High levels of FGFR-3 protein were identified in cells stably transfected with the vector containing FGFR-3 cDNA. The specific binding of 125I-FGF-2 of these cells was threefold higher than that of control cells. Growth rates of cells overexpressing FGFR-3 were similar to those of control cells. However, cells overexpressing FGFR-3 continued to grow beyond the density at which control cells stopped proliferating. These results suggest that FGFR-3 in thyroid carcinoma is not involved strongly in the cell proliferation mechanism but may contribute to the malignant extension of some of the carcinomas by modifying cell contact signaling. (+info)
Frequent genetic alterations in simple urothelial hyperplasias of the bladder in patients with papillary urothelial carcinoma.
In order to understand the origin of bladder cancer, very early urothelial lesions must be investigated in addition to more advanced tumors. Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. The biopsies were obtained with the recently developed highly sensitive diagnostic method of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). Besides flat and papillary urothelial neoplasms, the method of photodynamic diagnostics also detects simple urothelial hyperplasias as fluorescent positive lesions. In addition, 12 fluorescence-positive biopsies showing histologically normal urothelium were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done using a dual color staining technique of biotinylated centromeric probes of chromosomes 9 and 17 and digoxigenin-labeled gene-specific P1 probes for chromosomes 9q22 (FACC), 9p21(p16/CDKI2), and 17p13(p53). Ten of 14 hyperplasias (70%) showed deletions of chromosome 9. In 7 out of 8 patients with genetic alterations in the hyperplasias the genetic change was also present in the papillary tumor. Six out of 12 samples of microdissected normal urothelium also showed genetic alterations on chromosome 9. Microdissection of urothelial lesions, obtained during AFE, has led to the first unequivocal documentation of genetic changes in urothelial lesions diagnosed as normal in histopathology. Thus, this technical approach is important to provide insight into the earliest molecular alterations in bladder carcinogenesis. (+info)
A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens.
One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis. (+info)
Human thyroid cancer cells as a source of iso-genic, iso-phenotypic cell lines with or without functional p53.
Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (in contrast to the rarer anaplastic form) are unusual among human cancers in displaying a remarkably low frequency of p53 mutation and appear to retain wild-type (wt) p53 function as assessed by the response of derived cell lines to DNA damage. Using one such cell line, K1, we have tested the effect of experimental abrogation of p53 function by generating matched sub-clones stably expressing either a neo control gene, a dominant-negative mutant p53 (143ala) or human papilloma virus protein HPV16 E6. Loss of p53 function in the latter two groups was confirmed by abolition of p53-dependent 'stress' responses including induction of the cyclin/CDK inhibitor p21WAF1 and G1/S arrest following DNA-damage. In contrast, no change was detected in the phenotype of 'unstressed' clones, with respect to any of the following parameters: proliferation rate in monolayer, serum-dependence for proliferation or survival, tumorigenicity, cellular morphology, or tissue-specific differentiation markers. The K1 line therefore represents a 'neutral' background with respect to p53 function, permitting the derivation of functionally p53 + or - clones which are not only iso-genic but also iso-phenotypic. Such a panel should be an ideal tool with which to test the p53-dependence of cellular stress responses, particularly the sensitivity to potential therapeutic agents, free from the confounding additional phenotypic differences which usually accompany loss of p53 function. The results also further support the hypothesis that p53 mutation alone is not sufficient to drive progression of thyroid cancer to the aggressive anaplastic form. (+info)
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA is elevated in advanced stages of thyroid carcinoma.
Tumour cell invasion and metastasis is a multistep process that involves the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) act as negative regulators of MMPs and thus prevent tumour cell invasion and metastasis by preserving extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity. In the present study we examined the expression of one member of TIMPs, TIMP-1, in 39 thyroid tumour specimens and two thyroid carcinoma cell lines (NPA and SW579). We also investigated the effect of high TIMP-1 expression on the invasive potential of NPA cells. Northern blot analysis showed that TIMP-1 mRNA levels correlated directly with tumour aggressiveness: the highest number of TIMP-1 transcripts was found in stages III and IV vs benign goitre (P < 0.0001). However, TIMP-1 expression was not increased in NPA and SW579 cells, both of which are derived from poorly differentiated thyroid tumours. Immunohistochemical study showed strong TIMP-1 staining in the stroma cells of advanced stages of carcinomas. Overexpression of TIMP-1 by gene transfer resulted in a significant suppression of the malignant phenotype of NPA cells as judged by an in vitro tumour invasion assay. These results suggest that high levels of TIMP-1 transcripts in advanced stages of thyroid carcinoma likely come from stroma rather than thyroid cancer cells, and TIMP-1 may function as a thyroid tumour invasion/metastasis suppressor. (+info)
Elevated reticulocyte count--a clue to the diagnosis of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) associated with gemcitabine therapy for metastatic duodenal papillary carcinoma: a case report.
In adults, the haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) is associated with probable causative factors in the minority of all cases. Cytotoxic drugs are one of these potential causative agents. Although metastatic cancer by itself is a recognized risk-factor for the development of HUS, therapy with mitomycin-C, with cis-platinum, and with bleomycin carries a significant, albeit extremely small, risk for the development of HUS, compared with all other cytotoxic drugs. Gemcitabine is a novel cytotoxic drug with promising activity against pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We are reporting on one patient with metastatic duodenal papillary carcinoma developing HUS while on weekly gemcitabine therapy. The presenting features in this patient were non-cardiac pulmonary oedema, renal failure, thrombocytopenia and haemolytic anaemia. The diagnosis of HUS was made on the day of admission of the patient to this institution. Upon aggressive therapy, including one single haemodialysis and five plasmaphereses, the patient recovered uneventfully, with modestly elevated creatinine-values as a remnant of the acute illness. Re-exposure to gemcitabine 6 months after the episode of HUS instituted for progressive carcinoma, thus far has not caused another episode of HUS. (+info)
Induction of mammary carcinomas by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in ovariectomized rats treated with epidermal growth factor.
The importance of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in both normal and malignant mammary gland development are presented in these studies. Initial findings demonstrated that in the absence of ovarian hormones, EGF had a significant proliferative effect on mammary epithelial cells. To determine whether mammary epithelial cells grown with EGF, in the absence of ovarian hormones, could be transformed by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), female ovariectomized Lewis rats were implanted with pellets containing EGF for 1 week and then treated with MNU for initiation. Two days after MNU treatment, ovaries were implanted and EGF pellets were removed from all ovariectomized groups in order to promote carcinogenesis. The mammary carcinoma incidence of the EGF-stimulated group (90%) was not significantly different from the intact group (100%). The mammary cancer morphology of EGF-treated carcinomas was either ductal carcinoma or cribriform adenocarcinoma, whereas intact animals developed mainly papillary and occasional cribriform carcinomas. Fifty-eight percent of the carcinomas from the EGF group were ovarian hormone-independent compared with 10% of carcinomas from the intact group. These results demonstrate that EGF-induced proliferation during initiation with MNU was sufficient to induce the transformation of mammary carcinomas in the absence of ovarian hormones. The hormonal dependency of these EGF-induced carcinomas were different compared with MNU-initiated mammary carcinomas in intact rats. (+info)
The genetic locus NRC-1 within chromosome 3p12 mediates tumor suppression in renal cell carcinoma independently of histological type, tumor microenvironment, and VHL mutation.
Human chromosome 3p cytogenetic abnormalities and loss of heterozygosity have been observed at high frequency in the nonpapillary form of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene for RCC at 3p25, and functional studies as well as molecular genetic and cytogenetic analyses have suggested as many as two or three additional regions of 3p that could harbor tumor suppressor genes for sporadic RCC. We have previously functionally defined a novel genetic locus nonpapillary renal carcinoma-1 (NRC-1) within chromosome 3p12, distinct from the VHL gene, that mediates tumor suppression and rapid cell death of RCC cells in vivo. We now report the suppression of tumorigenicity of RCC cells in vivo after the transfer of a defined centric 3p fragment into different histological types of RCC. Results document the functional involvement of NRC-1 in not only different cell types of RCC (i.e., clear cell, mixed granular cell/clear cell, and sarcomatoid types) but also in papillary RCC, a less frequent histological type of RCC for which chromosome 3p LOH and genetic aberrations have only rarely been observed. We also report that the tumor suppression observed in functional genetic screens was independent of the microenvironment of the tumor, further supporting a role for NRC-1 as a more general mediator of in vivo growth control. Furthermore, this report demonstrates the first functional evidence for a VHL-independent pathway to tumorigenesis in the kidney via the genetic locus NRC-1. (+info)