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(1/327) Comparison of survival between malignant neuroendocrine tumours of midgut and pancreatic origin.

The survival of 64 consecutive patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumours was compared in a retrospective study with that of 25 consecutive patients with sporadic malignant endocrine pancreatic tumours treated according to similar surgical principles. The presence of hepatic metastases implied a worse prognosis in neuroendocrine tumours of pancreatic rather than midgut origin. This infers that these tumour types must be separated when treatments are evaluated.  (+info)

(2/327) Brain metastases from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct: a case report.

A 68-year-old man with metastatic brain tumors from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct is reported. A common bile duct tumor and a metastatic liver tumor had been resected 6 years and 3 years prior to admission, respectively. Microscopically they showed two components; moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. He presented with headache and vomiting and MRI revealed two metastatic brain tumors. They were successfully resected and radiotherapy was carried out. Histological diagnosis of the metastatic brain tumors was neuroendocrine carcinoma, but carbohydrate antigen (CA)-19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-immunoreactive cells were observed without glandular pattern. Immunohistochemically serotonin and pancreatic polypeptide were detected, but somatostatin was not. As the endocrine cells demonstrated in the normal extrahepatic bile ducts are only somatostatin-containing D cells, these cells are considered to originate as part of a metaplastic process. To our knowledge, this represents the second case of adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct.  (+info)

(3/327) Thymic carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in a calf.

A neuroendocrine carcinoma originating in the thymus was found in a 7-month-old, castrated male, Japanese Black calf. The neoplasm consisted largely of very primitive cells, characterized by the paucity of cytoplasmic organelles, but a few cells were immunoreactive for somatostatin or neurofilaments. The expression of both cytokeratin and neurofilament protein was a feature of neuroendocrine differentiation. This neoplasm considered to be a tumor of a thymic stem cell, with little but indubitable evidence of differentiation into somatostatin-producing cells.  (+info)

(4/327) Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia.

The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type.  (+info)

(5/327) Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2 in lung cancer and their role in tumor progression.

The plasminogen activator cascade initiated by urokinase type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is involved in extracellular matrix degradation during the tumor invasion process. The plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 (PAI-1) and 2 (PAI-2) are two specific inhibitors of u-PA. We hypothesized that the balance between u-PA and its two inhibitors could be disrupted to favor plasminogen activation during lung cancer progression. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the pattern of expression of u-PA, PAI-1, and PAI-2 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors. u-PA and PAI-1 were both detected in stromal fibroblasts and in tumor cells. In 84 NSCLCs, their epithelial expression was strongly correlated and linked to the presence of node metastasis (P = 0.008), whereas their coexpression in fibroblasts was associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.04) and advanced stages (P = 0.009). In 72 NE tumors, u-PA and PAI-1 were more frequently expressed in fibroblasts in high-grade NE tumors (SCLC and large cell NE tumors) than in low- and intermediate-grade tumors (typical and atypical carcinoids). Comparison of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 14 cases showed that PAI-1 was consistently expressed by stromal fibroblasts, although the protein was also localized in tumor cells. In contrast, the expression of PAI-2 was restricted to fibroblasts and correlated with the absence of nodal involvement (P = 0.005). Considering NE tumors, the frequency of PAI-2 expression decreased along the NE spectrum from typical carcinoids to SCLCs. These data suggest that PAI-lacts in synergy with u-PA to favor tumor invasion process and connotes aggressivity, in contrast with PAI-2, which may block u-PA-mediated proteolysis and is inversely correlated with tumor progression.  (+info)

(6/327) Accelerated apoptosis and low bcl-2 expression associated with neuroendocrine differentiation predict shortened survival in operated large cell carcinoma of the lung.

In order to test the hypothesis that increased apoptotic activity is connected with neuroendocrine differentiation and low differentiation degree in large cell carcinoma (LCLC) and is regulated by bcl-2 family proteins, we analysed the extent of apoptosis and tumor necrosis and their relation to the expression of bcl-2, bax, bak and mcl-1 in 35 LCLCs, of which 20 were classified as large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNEC) and 15 as large cell non-neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNNEC). The extent of apoptosis was determined by detecting and counting the relative and absolute numbers of apoptotic cells and bodies using in situ 3 -end labelling of the apoptotic DNA. The extent and intensity of expression of the bcl-2, bax, bak and mcl-1 proteins were studied by immunohistochemistry. Also the relative volume density of necrosis was evaluated and correlated with the other parameters. Finally, all the parameters were evaluated as prognostic markers and correlated with data on the survival of the patients. Relatively high apoptotic indices were seen in both tumor types (average for both 2.53%, range 0.09 27.01%). Significantly higher bcl-2 and bak indices were detected more often in LCNECs than in LCNNECs. Immunohistochemically detected bax, bcl-2 and bak expression was independent of apoptotic index in both tumor types, while there was a statistically significant positive association between mcl-1 expression and apoptotic index in LCNNEC but not in LCNEC. There was a statistically significant association between high apoptotic index and shortened survival in LCLC. However, no association was found between tumor stage and apoptosis. The patients with LCNEC and low bcl-2 protein expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with high bcl-2 indices. There was also a clear association between shortened survival and necrotic LCNNEC. LCLCs show relatively high apoptotic activity, which is associated with shortened survival. The expression of bcl-2, bak and mcl- 1 is associated with neuroendocrine differentiation in LCLC. Finally, our results support some previous reports suggesting that bcl-2 expression in combination with some other markers involved in apoptosis and/or proliferation may be of prognostic value in cases of lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.  (+info)

(7/327) Semaphorin SEMA3F localization in malignant human lung and cell lines: A suggested role in cell adhesion and cell migration.

Semaphorins/collapsins are a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins involved in nerve growth cone migration. However, some are expressed widely in adult tissues suggesting additional functions. SEMA3F/H.SemaIV was previously isolated from a 3p21.3 homozygous deletion region in human lung cancer. We studied SEMA3F cellular localization using our previously characterized anti-SEMA3F antibody. In normal lung, SEMA3F was found in all epithelial cells at the cytoplasmic membrane and, to a lesser extent, in the cytoplasm. In lung tumors, the localization was predominantly cytoplasmic, and the levels were comparatively reduced. In non-small-cell lung carcinomas, low levels correlated with higher stage. In all tumors, an exclusive cytoplasmic localization of SEMA3F correlated with high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and was related to the grade and aggressiveness. This suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor might compete with SEMA3F for binding to their common receptors, neuropilin-1 and -2 and might contribute to SEMA3F delocalization and deregulation in lung tumor. In parallel studies, SEMA3F distribution was examined in cell cultures by confocal microscopy. Marked staining was observed in pseudopods and in the leading edge or ruffling membranes of lamellipods or cellular protrusions in motile cells. SEMA3F was also observed at the interface of adjacent interacting cells suggesting a role in cell motility and cell adhesion.  (+info)

(8/327) Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined features ranging from well-differentiated (carcinoid) to small cell carcinoma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.

We reviewed 11 cases of primary thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined features ranging from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. For 3 asymptomatic patients, tumors were discovered during routine examination. Presentation in the other patients was as follows: Cushing syndrome, 2 patients; chest pain, 3 patients; superior vena cava syndrome, 1 patient; and hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, 1 patient. No clinical data were available for the 11th patient. All tumors were located in the anterior mediastinum and treated by surgical excision. The lesions were large and well-circumscribed with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. They were characterized by areas showing a proliferation of monotonous, round tumor cells adopting a prominent organoid pattern admixed with areas showing sheets of atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, frequent mitoses, and extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Immunohistochemical studies performed in 6 cases showed strong CAM 5.2 low-molecular-weight cytokeratin positivity in all cases, chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity in 4, Leu-7 in 3, and focal positivity for p53 in 2. Follow-up information for 9 cases showed that all patients died of their tumors between 1 and 4 years after diagnosis. The present cases highlight the heterogeneity of neuroendocrine neoplasms and reinforce the notion that these tumors form part of a continuous spectrum of differentiation.  (+info)