Successful adoptive immunotherapy of murine poorly immunogenic tumor with specific effector cells generated from gene-modified tumor-primed lymph node cells.
We previously reported that cytokine gene transfer into weakly immunogenic tumor cells could enhance the generation of precursor cells of tumor-reactive T cells and subsequently augment antitumor efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy. We investigated whether such potent antitumor effector T cells could be generated from mice bearing poorly immunogenic tumors. In contrast to similarly modified weakly immunogenic tumors, MCA102 cells, which are chemically induced poorly immunogenic fibrosarcoma cells transfected with cDNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, failed to augment the host immune reaction. Because priming of antitumor effector T cells in vivo requires two important signals provided by tumor-associated Ags and costimulatory molecules, these tumor cells were cotransfected with a B7-1 cDNA. Transfection of both IFN-gamma and B7-1 (MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma) resulted in regression of s.c. tumors, while tumor transfected with other combinations of cytokine and B7-1 showed progressive growth. Cotransfection of IFN-gamma and B7-1 into other poorly immunogenic tumor B16 and LLC cells also resulted in the regression of s.c. tumors. Cells derived from lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors showed potent antitumor efficacy, eradicating established pulmonary metastases, but this effect was not seen with parental tumors. This mechanism of enhanced antitumor efficacy was further investigated, and T cells with down-regulated L-selectin expression, which constituted all the in vivo antitumor reactivity, were significantly increased in lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors. These T cells developed into potent antitumor effector cells after in vitro activation with anti-CD3/IL-2. The strategy presented here may provide a basis for developing potent immunotherapy for human cancers. (+info)
Rapid induction of cytokine and E-selectin expression in the liver in response to metastatic tumor cells.
The cytokine-inducible endothelial cell adhesion receptor E-selectin has been implicated in cancer metastasis. Previously, we reported that experimental liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma subline H-59 cells could be abrogated in animals treated with an anti-E-selectin antibody. To gain further insight into the functional relevance of E-selectin expression to liver colonization, we investigated here the time course of cytokine and hepatic E-selectin expression after the intrasplenic/portal inoculation of H-59 cells by using a combination of reverse transcription-PCR, Northern blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In parallel, we analyzed cytokine induction in response to the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma subline M-27 and murine melanoma B16-F1 cells, which do not spontaneously metastasize to the liver. In livers derived from normal or saline-injected mice, only minimal basal levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 mRNA were detectable by RT-PCR. Rapid cytokine mRNA induction was noted within 30-60 min of H-59 injection, reaching maximal levels at 4-6 h. This was followed by the appearance of E-selectin mRNA, which was detectable at 2 h after injection and reached maximal levels at 6-8 h, declining to basal levels by 24 h. In situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry localized E-selectin mRNA and protein, respectively, to the sinusoidal endothelium. M-27 cells failed to induce cytokine or E-selectin expression, whereas B-16 cells elicited a delayed and more short-lived response. The results demonstrate that upon entry into the hepatic circulation, tumor cells can rapidly trigger a molecular cascade leading to the induction of E-selectin expression on the sinusoidal endothelium and suggest that E-selectin induction may contribute to the liver-colonizing potential of tumor cells. (+info)
Mediastinal lymph node metastasis model by orthotopic intrapulmonary implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in mice.
This study is designed to establish a pulmonary tumour model to investigate the biology and therapy of lung cancer in mice. Current methods for forming a solitary intrapulmonary nodule and subsequent metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes are not well defined. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell suspensions were orthotopically introduced into the lung parenchyma of C57/BL6 mice via a limited skin incision without thoracotomy followed by direct puncture through the intercostal space. The implantation process was performed within approximately 50 s per mouse, and the operative mortality was less than 5%. Single pulmonary nodules developed at the implanted site in 93% of animals and subsequent mediastinal lymph node metastasis was observed in all mice that formed a lung nodule after intrapulmonary implantation. The size of tumour nodule and the weight of mediastinal lymph node increased in a time-dependent manner. The mean survival time of mice implanted successfully with LLC cells was 21+/-2 days (range 19-24 days). Histopathological analysis revealed that no metastatic tumour was detectable in the mediastinal lymph nodes on day 11, but metastatic foci at mediastinal lymph nodes were clearly observed on days 17 and 21 after implantation. Other metastases in distant organs or lymph nodes were not observed at 21 days after the implantation. Comparative studies with intrapleural and intravenous injections of LLC cells suggest that the mediastinal lymph node metastasis by intrapulmonary implantation is due to the release of tumour cells from the primary nodule, and not due to extrapulmonary leakage of cells. An intravenous administration of cis-diamine dichloro platinum on day 1 after tumour implantation tended to suppress the primary tumour nodule and significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis. Thus, a solitary pulmonary tumour nodule model with lymph node metastasis approximates clinical lung cancer and may provide a useful basis for lung cancer research. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice.
We investigated the effect of the water extract of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma (B16) cells in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a s.c. injection of LLC and B16 cells and sacrificed 20 and 26 days after tumor inoculation, respectively. WECS was daily administered p.o. to the mice in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (wt.) in the experiment of LLC and in a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt. in the experiment of B16 from one week before tumor inoculation to one day before the date of sacrifice. The tumor cells increased in the thigh in LLC-inoculated mice and in the footpad in B16-inoculated mice. The relative liver wt. of the tumor-inoculated mice significantly increased as compared to that of the normal mice due to the tumor metastasis, as verified by the hematoxylin-eosin staining pathological study in the LLC experiment. The relative liver wt. of the WECS-administered mice significantly decreased relative to that of the control mice in both the LLC and B16 experiments. WECS showed a strong cytotoxicity against LLC and B16 cells, while cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), an active component of WECS, was not cytotoxic against these cells. These findings suggest that WECS has an anti-metastatic activity that is probably due to components other than cordycepin. (+info)
Mechanisms of synergism between cisplatin and gemcitabine in ovarian and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines.
2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine, dFdC) and cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) are active agents against ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CDDP acts by formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts; dFdC by dFdCTP incorporation into DNA, subsequently leading to inhibition of exonuclease and DNA repair. Previously, synergism between both compounds was found in several human and murine cancer cell lines when cells were treated with these drugs in a constant ratio. In the present study we used different combinations of both drugs (one drug at its IC25 and the other in a concentration range) in the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780, its CDDP-resistant variant ADDP, its dFdC-resistant variant AG6000 and two NSCLC cell lines, H322 (human) and Lewis lung (LL) (murine). Cells were exposed for 4, 24 and 72 h with a total culture time of 96 h, and possible synergism was evaluated by median drug effect analysis by calculating a combination index (CI; CI < 1 indicates synergism). With CDDP at its IC25, the average CIs calculated at the IC50, IC75 IC90 and IC95 after 4, 24 and 72 h of exposure were < 1 for all cell lines, indicating synergism, except for the CI after 4 h exposure in the LL cell line which showed an additive effect. With dFdC at its IC25, the CIs for the combination with CDDP after 24 h were < 1 in all cell lines, except for the CIs after 4 h exposure in the LL and H322 cell lines which showed an additive effect. At 72 h exposure all CIs were < 1. CDDP did not significantly affect dFdCTP accumulation in all cell lines. CDDP increased dFdC incorporation into both DNA and RNA of the A2780 cell lines 33- and 79-fold (P < 0.01) respectively, and tended to increase the dFdC incorporation into RNA in all cell lines. In the AG6000 and LL cell lines, CDDP and dFdC induced > 25% more DNA strand breaks (DSB) than each drug alone; however, in the other cell lines no effect, or even a decrease in DSB, was observed. dFdC increased the cellular Pt accumulation after 24 h incubation only in the ADDP cell line. However, dFdC did enhance the Pt-DNA adduct formation in the A2780, AG6000, ADDP and LL cell lines (1.6-, 1.4-, 2.9- and 1.6-fold respectively). This increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation seems to be related to the incorporation of dFdC into DNA (r = 0.91). No increase in DNA platination was found in the H322 cell line. dFdC only increased Pt-DNA adduct retention in the A2780 and LL cell lines, but decreased the Pt-DNA adduct retention in the AG6000 cell line. In conclusion, the synergism between dFdC and CDDP appears to be mainly due to an increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation possibly related to changes in DNA due to dFdC incorporation into DNA. (+info)
Diminution of 37-kDa laminin binding protein expression reduces tumour formation of murine lung cancer cells.
Expression of the 37-kDa laminin binding protein (37LBP/p40), a precursor of the 67-kDa laminin receptor, is well-correlated with the biological aggressiveness of cancer cells. To elucidate the direct role played by 37LBP/p40 in cancer cells, a murine lung cancer cell line T11, the 37LBP/p40 expression of which was remarkably diminished, was established by the introduction of the antisense 37LBP/p40-RNA using a retroviral vector. As a result, the population doubling time of T11 was prolonged (60 h) compared with that of P29, the non-transfected parental cell line (42 h), and TN2, a transfectant with vehicle only (40 h). In-vitro studies also showed that T11 cells adhered to immobilized laminin less firmly than P29 cells did. When 5 x 10(5) cells were subcutaneously inoculated into syngenic mice, the mean survival time of T11-recipients (77.0+/-14.8 days) was also significantly prolonged compared with that for P29 (34.8+/-5.5 days) and TN2 (36.7+/-6.1 days) recipients (P < 0.001). The electron-microscopic view of the tumour tissue revealed that T11 cells were loosely apposed and their intercellular space was markedly widened. Some of the T11 cells sporadically degenerated with the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils. These results suggest that the suppressed expression of 37LBP/p40 reduces the capability of lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumour formation in vivo. (+info)
Impaired ability of MHC class II-/- dendritic cells to provide tumor protection is rescued by CD40 ligation.
The contribution of CD4+ T cells to dendritic cell (DC) activation and to the induction of CD8+ T cell responses in vivo was investigated using a model of antitumor immune responses. Immunization with peptide-loaded MHC class II-deficient (MHC class II-/-) DC induced the activation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells and their accumulation in the lymph nodes and spleens of immunized mice. The accumulation induced by MHC class II-/- DC immunization was lower than the accumulation observed after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Similarly, immunization with peptide-loaded, MHC class II-/- DC induced some degree of protection against tumor challenge, but this protection was lower than the protection achieved after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Incubation with a membrane-associated form of CD40 ligand resulted in the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on MHC class II-/- DC and fully rescued their ability to induce antitumor immunity. We conclude that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the generation of antitumor immune responses through their capacity to induce the activation of DC via CD40/CD40 ligand interaction, and thus maximize CD8+ T cell responses. (+info)
Antitumor activity of phenylahistin in vitro and in vivo.
Phenylahistin is a new cell cycle inhibitor produced by Aspergillus ustus. Since phenylahistin was produced as a scalemic mixture of (-)-phenylahistin and its enantiomer, we separated each enantiomer and evaluated their antitumor activity in vitro. (-)-Phenylahistin exhibited antitumor activity against 8 tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.8 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-6), while (+)-phenylahistin exhibited 33-100-fold less potent activity than (-)-phenylahistin did. (-)-Phenylahistin also showed antitumor activity against P388 leukemia and Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo. (+info)