(1/354) Increased expression of the RIalpha subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is associated with advanced stage ovarian cancer.

The primary element in the cAMP signal transduction pathway is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Expression of the RIalpha subunit of type I PKA is elevated in a variety of human tumours and cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of RIalpha expression in patients with ovarian cancer. We have evaluated the expression of RIalpha in a panel of human ovarian tumours (n = 40) and five human ovarian cancer cell lines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The human ovarian cell lines OAW42 and OTN14 express high endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (at significantly higher mRNA levels than high tissue expressors, P < 0.05). The ovarian cell line A2780 expresses low endogenous levels of RIalpha mRNA and protein (also at higher mRNA levels than low tissue expressors, P < 0.05). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant difference in RIalpha mRNA expression between different ovarian histological subtypes in this study. No associations were found between RIalpha mRNA expression and differentiation state. RIalpha mRNA expression was significantly associated with tumour stage (P = 0.0036), and this remained significant in univariate analysis (P = 0.0002). A trend emerged between RIalpha mRNA expression levels and overall survival in univariate analysis (P = 0.051), however, by multivariate analysis, stage remained the major determinant of overall survival (P = 0.0001). This study indicates that in ovarian epithelial tumours high RIalpha mRNA expression is associated with advanced stage disease. RIalpha expression may be of predictive value in ovarian cancer and may be associated with dysfunctional signalling pathways in this cancer type.  (+info)

(2/354) Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study.

Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.  (+info)

(3/354) Clear cell carcinoma arising in a Cesarean section scar endometriosis: a case report.

Endometriosis of a surgical scar is rare and occurs mainly when a hysterectomy or Cesarean section was performed. We describe a 54-year-old woman with a large suprapubic mass as a definite case of a endomerioid carcinoma developing within the scar endometriosis following Cesarean section. Scar endometriosis, as well as endometriosis at other sites, can turn malignant. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common histological pattern of malignant tumor arising in endometriosis. But clear cell carcinoma is very unusual. A case of primary clear cell carcinoma in endometriosis of a Cesarean section scar is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of endomerioid carcinoma developing within the scar endometriosis in Korea.  (+info)

(4/354) Overexpression of H-Ryk in mouse fibroblasts confers transforming ability in vitro and in vivo: correlation with up-regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Abnormalities in the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been demonstrated to be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. H-Ryk, a new member of the RTK family, is an unusual RTK in that it is catalytically inactive because of amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the catalytic domain. We show by immunohistochemistry that it is expressed in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels of normal tissues. Evaluation of a panel of 33 primary ovarian tumors (2 benign, 8 borderline, and 23 malignant) was performed. H-Ryk was overexpressed in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. In serous and clear cell subtypes, there was increased expression in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of H-Ryk in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 induces anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. This implies that overexpression of the receptor can be transforming and may therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(5/354) beta-catenin expression pattern in stage I and II ovarian carcinomas : relationship with beta-catenin gene mutations, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcome.

The immunohistochemical expression pattern of beta-catenin has been correlated with beta-catenin gene mutations, clinicopathological features, and disease outcome in 69 stage I and II ovarian carcinomas. beta-Catenin expression was localized in the nuclei, in addition to the cytoplasm and membrane, in 11 tumors (16%): nine endometrioid carcinomas with widespread nuclear expression and two serous carcinomas with focal nuclear expression. The remaining 58 carcinomas (84%) only had membranous beta-catenin expression. All but one of the endometrioid carcinomas with nuclear beta-catenin expression had considerable squamous metaplasia, and five of these cases had large areas of endometrioid tumor of low malignant potential. In addition, beta-catenin nuclear expression was observed in atypical epithelial cells in endometriotic glands adjacent to an endometrioid carcinoma. Sequencing was performed on 25 tumors and corresponding normal tissue: all 13 endometrioid tumors as well as 12 carcinomas of other histological types (four serous, two clear cell, two mucinous, and two mixed). There were oncogenic mutations in the phosphorylation sequence for GSK-3beta in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene in seven endometrioid carcinomas with beta-catenin nuclear expression. Three mutations affected codon 32 (D32G, D32Y, and D32Y), one affected codon 33 (S33C), two affected codon 37 (S37C and S37F), and one affected codon 41 (T41A). No mutations were observed in the other 18 carcinomas analyzed, comprising two endometrioid and two serous carcinomas with beta-catenin nuclear expression, and 14 carcinomas of different histological types with only membranous expression. In the univariate and multivariate survival analyses, beta-catenin nuclear expression was selected as an indicator of good prognosis, because no patient whose tumor expressed beta-catenin in the nuclei showed relapses or died, in contrast to the 19 relapses and deaths among patients with tumors that only had beta-catenin membranous expression, including three of the four patients with endometrioid carcinomas. Oncogenic beta-catenin mutation is characteristic of a group of endometrioid carcinomas with a good prognosis, most of which originate from previous benign or borderline lesions. Endometrioid carcinomas with exclusively membranous expression of beta-catenin seem to represent a different subgroup of carcinomas that probably have a worse prognosis. In early-stage ovarian cancer, determination of the beta-catenin expression pattern could prove to be a useful marker for selecting low-risk patients.  (+info)

(6/354) Evaluation of the tyrosine kinase domain of the Met proto-oncogene in sporadic ovarian carcinomas*.

Most of the ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium derived from the coelomic mesothelium. The Met proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (Met) that has the capacity to regulate cell proliferation and differentation and it is activated by hepatocyte growth factor. Trisomy of chromosome 7 and Met protein overexpression have been were observed in ovarian carcinomas, the papillary renal cancers and other solid tumors. Frequent mutations of Met proto-oncogene have been found in hereditary papillary renal cancer (HPRC) and most of the mutations are located in the tyrosine kinase domain. The aim of this study to perform a mutation analysis of exons 17 19 of Met proto-oncogene in epithelial ovarian tumors (EOTs). We have examined 24 tumor samples from patients, operated with EOTs. Mutation was detected in exon 18 in only one sample of 24 EOTs. Our results indicate that mutations located in the Met proto-oncogene is not a common event in EOT. It is not clear whether the mutation plays a role in the tumorigenesis or progression of EOT or not.  (+info)

(7/354) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours.  (+info)

(8/354) A case-control study of galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to ovarian cancer.

Consumption or metabolism of dairy sugar and ovarian cancer have been linked based on evidence that galactose may be toxic to ovarian germ cells and that ovarian cancer is induced in animals by depletion of oocytes. We assessed consumption of dairy products and obtained blood for biochemical and molecular genetic assessment of galactose metabolism in 563 women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 523 control women selected either by random digit dialing or through lists of residents in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire. We observed no significant differences between cases and controls in usual consumption of various types of dairy products or total daily lactose (the principal source of galactose in the diet); nor did we find that RBC activity of either galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) or galactokinase differed. The mean (and SE) activity of uridine diphospho-galactose 4'-epimerase (in micromoles per hour per gram of hemoglobin) was, however, significantly lower (P < 0.005) in cases compared with controls, 20.32 (0.31) versus 21.64 (0.36). Ovarian cancer cases were also more likely to carry the N314D polymorphism of the GALT gene, generally predisposing to lower GALT activity. The difference was most evident for endometrioid and clear cell types of ovarian cancer, in which 3.9% of cases were found to be homozygous for N314D compared with 0.4% of controls, yielding an odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of 14.17 (2.62-76.60). We conclude that, whereas adult consumption of lactose carries no clear risk for the disease, certain genetic or biochemical features of galactose metabolism may influence disease risk for particular types of ovarian cancer.  (+info)