(1/236) Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung.
AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
(2/236) Randomized comparison of fluorouracil plus cisplatin versus hydroxyurea as an adjunct to radiation therapy in stage IIB-IVA carcinoma of the cervix with negative para-aortic lymph nodes: a Gynecologic Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group study.
PURPOSE: In 1986, a protocol comparing primary radiation therapy (RT) plus hydroxyurea (HU) to irradiation plus fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CF) was activated by the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The goals were to determine the superior chemoradiation regimen and to quantitate the relative toxicities. METHODS: All patients had biopsy-proven invasive squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Patients underwent standard clinical staging studies and their tumors were found to be International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stages IIB, III, or IVA. Negative cytologic washings and para-aortic lymph nodes were required for entry. Patients were randomized to receive either standard whole pelvic RT with concurrent 5-FU infusion and bolus CF or the same RT plus oral HU. RESULTS: Of 388 randomized patients, 368 were eligible; 177 were randomized to CF and 191 to HU. Adverse effects were predominantly hematologic or gastrointestinal in both regimens. Severe or life-threatening leukopenia was more common in the HU group (24%) than in the CF group (4%). The difference in progression-free survival (PFS) was statistically significant in favor of the CF group (P = .033). The sites of progression in the two treatment groups were not substantially different. Survival was significantly better for the patients randomized to CF (P = .018). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix, the combination of 5-FU and CF with RT offers patients better PFS and overall survival than HU, and with manageable toxicity. (+info)
(3/236) Haematogenous cytokeratin 20 mRNA as a predictive marker for recurrence in oral cancer patients.
We examined the expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) mRNA in the peripheral blood of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eleven out of 12 oral SCC patients showed positive RT-PCR results. However, there is no clear relationship between the haematogenous CK20 mRNA and the metastasis. After initial treatment, all of the tumour-free survivors tested showed negative RT-PCR results. CK20 mRNA in peripheral blood can be used as a marker for tumour recurrence but not not for metastasis in oral SCC patients. (+info)
(4/236) A population-based survey of the management of women with cancer of the cervix.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diagnostic throughput on survival outcome for women with cancer of the cervix. We conducted a case note review of 359 women in Lancashire and Greater Manchester diagnosed with cancer of the cervix during 1990, identified from records held by the North Western Regional Cancer Registry. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were undertaken to investigate the influence on survival of woman, disease and treatment related factors. Following adjustment for woman- and disease-related factors there was no evidence of a statistically significant association between diagnostic throughput and survival. The findings of this study do not support the need for any change in the referral patterns to gynaecologists of women with symptoms suggestive of cancer of the cervix. (+info)
(5/236) Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in carcinoma of the pancreas.
The level of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been investigated recently in various human carcinomas. In the present study, we examined the distribution and extent of COX-2 protein in human pancreatic tumors using immunohistochemistry. A strong expression of COX-2 protein was present in 23 of 52 (44%) pancreatic carcinomas, a moderate expression was present in 24 of 52 (46%) pancreatic carcinomas, and a weak expression was present in 5 of 52 (10%) pancreatic carcinomas. In contrast, benign tumors showed weak expression or no expression of COX-2, and only islet cells displayed COX-2 expression in normal pancreatic tissues. Overexpression of COX-2 in carcinoma tissues was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, consistent with the results at protein levels, reverse transcription-PCR analyses indicated that COX-2 mRNA was overexpressed in 7 of 13 (54%) carcinomas, but in none of 3 benign tumors. Our findings suggest that COX-2 inhibitors might be potentially effective against pancreatic carcinomas and that COX-2 may be involved in certain biological processes in pancreatic islets. (+info)
(6/236) Adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate.
An unusual adenosquamous carcinoma originating in the prostate of a 73-year-old man is described. The histological finding showed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma admixed in an adenocarcinomatous area. A transitional area of 2 carcinomatous elements was also noted. Seven months prior to the development of this lesion, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma had been established by transurethral resection of the prostate and the patient had been treated with bilateral orchiectomy. This is the first case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate reported in Korea. The pathogenesis and previous reports of this lesion will be discussed. (+info)
(7/236) Carbonic anhydrase IX antigen differentiates between preneoplastic malignant lesions in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
The MaTu interval (MN)/carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX tumour-associated antigen is a protein that is normally expressed in the gut and belongs to the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family (CA IX). It has been detected in tumour cell lines and in some solid tumours including cervical, oesophageal and clear cell renal carcinoma. This study determined MN/CA IX expression in 65 primary non-small cell lung cancer resected with curative intent and in 38 bronchial preneoplastic lesions, carcinoma in situ or microinvasive carcinoma as well as in normal bronchial tissue. The presence of MN/CA IX was detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, whenever frozen material was available. Immunostaining was positive in 52/65 (80%) of the tumour samples. The staining was more often focal than diffuse. The percentage of stained cells in positive tumours was highly variable, ranging 1-85%. The pattern of immunostaining was predominantly cytoplasmic with a membranous reinforcement (87%). The intensity was mainly strong (69%). The presence of the protein in the tumour was confirmed by Western blot analysis in the eight samples tested. All the morphologically normal epithelia, except in close vicinity of tumours in some cases, as well as the preneoplastic bronchial lesions (basal cell hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia) were immunonegative for MN/CA IX expression. In contrast, carcinoma in situ and microinvasive epithelioma showed the presence of MN-immunopositive tumoural cells in 5/7 and 4/5 of the samples, respectively. These data suggest that MN/CA IX is a useful marker for the differentiation between preneoplastic lesions and bronchial non-small cell lung cancer in the lung. (+info)
(8/236) Inhibitory effects of combined administration of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs on lung tumor development initiated by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats.
The effects of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs on the promotion stage of lung carcinogenesis initiated with N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats were investigated in two experiments with a similar protocol. In experiment 1, rats received tap water containing 2000 p.p.m. BHP for 12 weeks followed by basal diet or basal diet containing 0.02% erythromycin (EM), 0. 04% ampicillin (ABPC), 1.5% sho-saiko-to, 0.02% EM plus 1.5% sho-saiko-to or 0.04% ABPC plus 1.5% sho-saiko-to for 8 weeks after BHP administration. The development of adenocarcinomas (AC), squamous cell carcinomas (SqC) and adenosquamous carcinomas (ASqC) was completely inhibited in rats given ABPC plus sho-saiko-to and the numbers of lung lesions including alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas were decreased in rats given EM plus sho-saiko-to or ABPC plus sho-saiko-to. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into alveolar spaces of the lung were also markedly suppressed. In experiment 2, rats received BHP in the same manner as in experiment 1 and basal diet or basal diet containing 0.04% ABPC, 0.006% piroxicam, 0.04% ABPC plus 0.006% piroxicam and 0.04% ABPC plus 0.75% ougon for 8 weeks. The incidence and number of carcinomas, including ACs, SqCs and ASqCs were decreased in rats given ABPC plus piroxicam or ABPC plus ougon. Bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, were detected in broncho-alveolar lavage of rats receiving BHP. The results suggest that chronic inflammation might be involved in the progression of lung carcinogenesis by BHP in rats and its suppression may therefore be useful as a chemopreventive strategy in lung cancer clinics. (+info)