Interferon (IFN)-beta gene transfer into TS/A adenocarcinoma cells and comparison with IFN-alpha: differential effects on tumorigenicity and host response. (9/865)

Our group had previously shown that transfer of the mouse interferon (IFN)-alpha1 gene into the metastasizing TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma resulted in T-cell-mediated tumor rejection and development of antitumor immunity. Moreover, we had shown that the metastatic ability of TS/A tumor cells producing IFN-alpha was strongly impaired, whereas IFN-gamma expression did not influence or augmented metastasis formation by TS/A cells. In this study, we have analyzed the in vitro and in vivo behavior of various TS/A tumor cell clones isolated after the transduction with a recombinant retroviral vector carrying the mouse IFN-beta gene. We have also compared the tumorigenicity of these clones with that of TS/A cells expressing IFN-alpha1. BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with parental TS/A cells, transduction control TS/A cells, or TS/A cells producing IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. Tumor growth was evaluated by the measurement of tumor masses and analysis of survival. The features of tumor growth and rejection were examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The metastatic ability of parental TS/A cells, transduction control TS/A cells, or TS/A cells producing IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, or IFN-gamma was evaluated after intravenous injection of the tumor cells into BALB/c mice by counting of the lung metastatic nodules and analysis of survival. A strong inhibition of tumorigenicity and development of tumor immunity were observed upon subcutaneous injection of syngeneic mice with TS/A tumor cells producing high amounts of IFN-beta, but not with clones expressing low levels of the cytokine, as observed for cells expressing IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha secretion by TS/A cells at the site of tumor growth induced a stronger inflammatory response as compared with IFN-beta, which appeared to be more active in the inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Notably, the metastatic ability of IFN-beta-producing TS/A cells after intravenous injection was either not affected or only slightly impaired as compared with parental TS/A tumor cells. In contrast, even cells producing low levels of IFN-alpha proved to be poorly metastatic. These findings represent the first comparison of the effectiveness of IFN-alpha versus IFN-beta produced by genetically modified cells on their tumorigenic behavior and suggest the existence of some notable differences in the capabilities of these two cytokines to induce a host antitumor reactivity in mice.  (+info)

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats. (10/865)

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased incidences of mesotheliomas and nasal tumors, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male rats given a diet containing 1000 ppm for 1 year followed by control diet for 1 year. There was no evidence of PCP carcinogenic activity in stop-exposure female rats.  (+info)

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (11/865)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Constitutive activation of stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G(S)alphaQL)-mediated signaling increases invasiveness and tumorigenicity of PC-3M prostate cancer cells. (12/865)

An abnormal stimulation of cAMP signaling cascade has been implicated in various human carcinomas. Since the agents activating G(S)alpha-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to increase in vitro proliferation of prostate cancer cells, present studies examined the G(S)alpha-mediated signaling in tumorigenicity and invasiveness of PC-3M prostate cancer cells. PC-3M cells were stably transfected with plasmids containing either wild type (G(S)alpha-WT) or constitutively active (gsp mutant of G(S)alpha or G(S)alpha-QL) cDNAs. The stable transfectants were then tested for: (1) colony formation in soft agar; (2) cell migration and penetration of basement matrix in an in vitro invasion assay; and (3) the ability to form tumors and metastases in nude mice. PC-3M cells expressing G(S)alpha-QL protein displayed 15-fold increase in their ability to migrate and penetrate the basement membrane as compared to parental PC-3M cells or those expressing G(S)alpha-WT. G(S)alpha-QL transfectants also displayed a dramatically greater rate of growth in soft agar, and greater tumorigenicity and metastasis forming ability when orthotopically implanted in nude mice. All mice receiving PC-3M cells produced primary tumors within 5 weeks after implantation. However, the cells expressing G(S)alpha-QL displayed a significantly faster tumor growth as assessed by prostate weight (greater than 20-fold as compared to PC-3M cells), and produced metastases in kidneys, lymph nodes, blood vessels, bowel mesentery and intestine. Interestingly, expression of G(S)alpha-WT reduced the ability of PC-3M cells to form tumors in nude mice. These results suggest that persistent activation of G(S)alpha-mediated signaling cascade can dramatically accelerate tumorigenesis and metastasizing ability of prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

Influence of fibre length, dissolution and biopersistence on the production of mesothelioma in the rat peritoneal cavity. (13/865)

A range of respirable man-made mineral fibres were tested for evidence of carcinogenicity by injection into the peritoneal cavity of male SPF Wistar rats; and differences in carcinogenicity were related to the dimensions and biopersistence of the injected fibres. The fibres tested included an amosite asbestos, a silicon carbide whisker, a special purpose glass microfibre, and a range of other man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) and refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs) from the TIMA fibre repository. The injected dose of each was designed as the estimated mass required to contain 10(9) fibres > 5 microns in length, as determined by optical microscopy. The numbers of long fibres (> 15 microns) contained in these doses ranged across fibres from 0.1 x 10(9) to 0.8 x 10(9) fibres; the number of long fibres thinner than 0.95 micron ranged from 0.015 x 10(9) to 0.4 x 10(9). The treatment groups contained between 18 and 24 animals. Animals were killed when they showed signs of debilitation. At autopsy, the diagnosis of mesothelioma was usually obvious macroscopically. Otherwise, histological examination of peritoneal organs was used to search for early tumour development. Judged by median survival time, four of the fibre types, in the doses administered, presented higher mesothelioma activity than amosite asbestos. The other fibres tested were less carcinogenic than the amosite. Only a ceramic material derived by extreme heating to simulate the effect of furnace or oven conditions, produced no mesotheliomas. Attempts were made, using regression models, to relate these differences to fibre dimensions and to measures of durability from separate experiments. The results pointed principally to a link with the injected numbers of fibres > 20 microns in length and with biopersistence in the rat lung of fibres longer than 5 microns. Improved quantification of the relative importance of fibre dimensions and biopersistence indices requires experimentation with a range of doses.  (+info)

Threshold dose response for tumor induction by genotoxic carcinogens modeled via cell-cycle delay. (14/865)

Dose-response relationships for tumor induction in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity are often postulated to include thresholds, particularly for nongenotoxic chemicals that increase the rate of cell proliferation at high doses. In this report, thresholds are postulated also for genotoxic carcinogens. The hypothesis is based on the idea of a delay of the cell cycle induced by low-level DNA damage and an acceleration at cytotoxic dose levels, thus resulting in a J-shaped (or U-shaped) dose response for cell turnover. Calculations were based on the 2-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. The background values chosen for the model parameters resulted in a 10.5% "spontaneous" 2-year cumulative tumor incidence. Using this as a starting point, a decrease by 3, 10, and 30% in the rates of cell turnover resulted in a decrease in the spontaneous tumor incidence to 9.4, 7.1 and 3.0%, respectively. Dose-responses with J-shaped curves for the rates of cell birth and death were modeled by shifted quadratic functions reaching the minimum at dose 1. Combinations with linearly increasing mutation rates also generated, under certain conditions, J-shaped dose-response curves for tumor incidence. As an example, for a 30% increase in mutation rates and a 10% decrease in cell turnover rates (both at dose 1), the dose-response curve showed an initial decrease of tumor incidence below the spontaneous rate, a reversion to the background value at 0.8 dose units, and an increase thereafter. The 0.8 dose could be considered to represent the "threshold dose." The approach presented might reconcile opposing views on thresholds on a biologically plausible mechanistic basis, and show a way for the quantitative estimation of threshold doses.  (+info)

p53 and Egr-1 additively suppress transformed growth in HT1080 cells but Egr-1 counteracts p53-dependent apoptosis. (15/865)

The human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, clone H4, was used to determine if the transformation suppressive functions of p53 and Egr-1 have the same underlying mechanism. This cell line expresses only mutant p53 and no detectable Egr-1. H4 clones stably expressing Egr-1 are less transformed in proportion to the level of Egr-1 expressed, acting through the induction of the TGFbeta1 gene. Here, H4 cells and the highest Egr-1 expressing clone were transfected with a vector expressing normal human p53 to derive stable clones expressing p53. The expression of p53 in H4 cells inhibited transformed growth and reduced tumorigenicity. The effect of coexpression of both p53 and Egr-1 was additive, producing cell lines with 30% of normal growth rate and sevenfold reduced tumorigenicity compared with control lines. These results indicated that each factor may act independently by different pathways, although each additively increased the level of p21WAF1 cell cycle inhibitor. However, exposure of the H4-derived cells to UV-C irradiation produced contrasting effects. Cell cycle analyses showed that the presence of p53 was associated with loss of the G1 and S cells to apoptosis after irradiation. In contrast, the expression of Egr-1 increased entry into S/G2 phase of the cell cycle with little apoptosis via a mechanism involving elevated FAK and low caspase activities. Apoptosis was observed only in the cell lines that expressed no Egr-1, especially those expressing wt-p53, and was preceded by high caspase activity. In summary, Egr-1 suppressed transformation and counteracted apoptosis by the coordinated activation of TGFbeta1, FN, p21 and FAK, leading to enhanced cell attachment and reduced caspase activity. In the doubly expressing cell line, the survival effect of Egr-1 was dominant over the apoptotic effect of p53.  (+info)

Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastric carcinogenesis in mongolian gerbils. (16/865)

The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer was studied using a Mongolian gerbil model. Five-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were divided into four groups of 25-30 animals each and challenged for 20 weeks with H.pylori, MNNG, a combination of H.pylori and MNNG, or neither of them. Four to 20 animals from each group were killed at 16, 24 and 52 weeks after H.pylori inoculation, and histopathological changes in their stomachs were examined. A well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was first observed 24 weeks after inoculation in the combination group. At 52 weeks, only six of 15 animals were colonized with H.pylori persistently, and four of them showed well-differentiated adenocarcinomas; on the other hand, neither of the animals with disappearance of H.pylori from the combination group showed adenocarcinoma. At the same observation time, three of 17 animals from MNNG group showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. The incidence of gastric carcinoma in the combination group was significantly higher than that in the MNNG group (P < 0.05). However, no tumors were seen in the control and H.pylori groups. The present findings demonstrate that H.pylori infection enhances the carcinogenic action of MNNG.  (+info)