Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 activates programmed cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cells. (73/865)

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted into the extra-cellular matrix and inhibit cell growth through IGF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the role of IGFBP-6, a relatively unexplored member of the IGFBP family, in the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Infection of NSCLC cell lines in vitro with an adenovirus expressing human IGFBP-6 under the control of a CMV promoter (Ad5CMV-BP6) reduced NSCLC cell number through activation of programmed cell death, as shown by cell staining with Hoechst 33342 or DNA end-labeling with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate. The growth regulatory effect of IGFBP-6 was investigated in vivo by intratumoral injection of Ad5CMV-BP6 in NSCLC xenografts established in nu/nu mice. A single injection of Ad5CMV-BP6 reduced the size of NSCLC xenografts by 45%. These findings indicate that IGFBP-6 is a potent inducer of programmed cell death in cancer cells and support investigations into IGFBP-6 as a potential target in cancer therapeutics.  (+info)

Cellular resistance to the antitumor DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor S16020-2: importance of the N-[2(Dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl side chain. (74/865)

The new olivacine derivative S16020-2 (NSC-659687) is a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor endowed with a remarkable antitumor activity against various experimental tumors. In vitro physicochemical properties of this compound, in particular its interaction with DNA and DNA topoisomerase II, were very similar to those of ellipticine derivatives, except for a strictly ATP-dependent mechanism of cleavable complex induction. From the Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line DC-3F, a subline resistant to S16020-2, named DC-3F/S16, was selected by adding stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug to the cell growth medium. Whereas DC-3F/9-OH-E cells, a DC-3F subline resistant to 9-hydroxy-ellipticine, are cross-resistant to S16020-2, DC-3F/S16 cells are only very weakly cross-resistant to ellipticine derivatives, indicating that, despite their structural similarity, these compounds may differ in their mechanisms of action. Uptake and efflux rates of S16020-2 were identical in the resistant and the sensitive cells. Topoisomerase IIalpha was expressed at the same level in both sensitive and resistant cells, whereas expression of the beta-enzyme was approximately 50% lower in the resistant cells. Sequencing of both alpha- and beta-isoform cDNAs revealed a point mutation that converts Arg(486) to a Gly in the alpha cDNA, whereas the beta cDNA was not modified. This amino acid substitution in a highly conserved sequence of the enzyme appears to be responsible for the resistance to S16020-2. Comparative analysis of the properties of the ellipticine and S16020-2-resistant cells suggests that S16020-2, which is a DNA intercalator, might also interact with this enzyme amino acid sequence through its side chain.  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated p16INK4 gene transfer significantly suppresses human breast cancer growth. (75/865)

The p16INK4 tumor suppressor gene encodes a protein that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and its homologous deletion is common in human breast cancer. p16INK4 gene transfer has been reported to be efficacious in inducing growth inhibition of various human tumors such as brain, lung, prostate, and esophageal cancers. However, the efficiency of the p16INK4 gene with regard to growth inhibition of human breast cancer has not been studied extensively. To examine its tumor-suppressive function and its potential in breast cancer gene therapy, the wild-type p16INK4 gene was expressed in an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system and introduced into breast cancer cell lines that do not express p16INK4 protein. Expression of the introduced p16INK4 blocked tumor cell entry into the S phase of the cell cycle, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and inhibited tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These results strongly suggest that p16INK4 is a tumor suppressor gene and suggest that it has potential utility in breast cancer gene therapy.  (+info)

Reevaluating cancer risk estimates for short-term exposure scenarios. (76/865)

Estimates of cancer risk from short-term exposure to carcinogens generally rely on cancer potency values derived from chronic, lifetime-exposure studies and assume that exposures of limited duration are associated with a proportional reduction in cancer risk. The validity of this approach was tested empirically using data from both chronic lifetime and stop-exposure studies of carcinogens conducted by the National Toxicology Program. Eleven compounds were identified as having data sufficient for comparison of relative cancer potencies from short-term versus lifetime exposure. The data were modeled using the chronic data alone, and also using the chronic and the stop-exposure data combined, where stop-exposure doses were adjusted to average lifetime exposure. Maximum likelihood estimates of the dose corresponding to a 1% added cancer risk (ED(01)) were calculated along with their associated 95% upper and lower confidence bounds. Statistical methods were used to evaluate the degree to which adjusted stop-exposures produced risks equal to those estimated from the chronic exposures. For most chemical/cancer endpoint combinations, inclusion of stop-exposure data reduced the ED(01), indicating that the chemical had greater apparent potency under stop-exposure conditions. For most chemicals and endpoints, consistency in potency between continuous and stop-exposure studies was achieved when the stop-exposure doses were averaged over periods of less than a lifetime-in some cases as short as the exposure duration itself. While the typical linear adjustments for less-than-lifetime exposure in cancer risk assessment can theoretically result in under- or overestimation of risks, empirical observations in this analysis suggest that an underestimation of cancer risk from short-term exposures is more likely.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cyclin D1 nuclear export and cyclin D1-dependent cellular transformation. (77/865)

GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at Thr-286 promotes the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic redistribution of cyclin D1 during S phase of the cell cycle, but how phosphorylation regulates redistribution has not been resolved. For example, phosphorylation of nuclear cyclin D1 could increase its rate of nuclear export relative to nuclear import; alternatively, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1 by GSK-3beta could inhibit nuclear import. Here, we report that GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation promotes cyclin D1 nuclear export by facilitating the association of cyclin D1 with the nuclear exportin CRM1. D1-T286A, a cyclin D1 mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by GSK-3beta, remains nuclear throughout the cell cycle, a consequence of its reduced binding to CRM1. Constitutive overexpression of the nuclear cyclin D1-T286A in murine fibroblasts results in cellular transformation and promotes tumor growth in immune compromised mice. Thus, removal of cyclin D1 from the nucleus during S phase appears essential for regulated cell division.  (+info)

Induction of lung lesions in female rats following chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (78/865)

2,3,7,8,-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been classified as a known human carcinogen, and epidemiologic studies identify the lung as one of the target organs. Few experimental studies have attempted to characterize pulmonary effects of TCDD exposure. In this study, we characterize the induction of lesions in the lung by chronic oral TCDD exposure in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated or noninitiated female Sprague-Dawley rats. Two or 18 weeks after initiation, rats were treated with TCDD continuously for 14, 30, or 60 weeks by biweekly oral gavage (1,750 ng TCDD/kg) at a dose equivalent to 125 ng/kg body weight per day (controls received corn oil). To assess the time dependence and reversibility of potential changes, some groups included withdrawal periods of 16 or 30 weeks after 30 weeks of TCDD treatment. TCDD treatment alone for 60 weeks caused significant increases in alveolar-bronchiolar (AB) metaplasia. TCDD treatment of DEN-initiated animals for 60 weeks resulted in a significant increase in bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. These increases were not observed in animals treated with TCDD for 30 weeks followed by corn oil for 30 weeks, indicating that the development of these lesions required continuous exposure to TCDD. AB hyperplasia increased in an age-dependent manner after DEN initiation but was unaffected by TCDD treatment. Expression of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and induction of CYP1A1 was observed only in bronchiolar Clara and ciliated cells, indicating that the mechanism of induction of AB metaplasia may be mediated by the AHR. TCDD elimination half-life was monophasic in the lung, and serum and was estimated to be 39.7 days and 44.6 days, respectively, independent of age, tissue TCDD concentration, or body weight. This is the first report to identify the AB region as a target for TCDD-induced metaplastic and proliferative changes after chronic oral exposure.  (+info)

Using cytochrome P-450 gene knock-out mice to study chemical metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. (79/865)

Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes are heme-containing proteins that carry out oxidative metabolism of a wide range of structurally diverse exogenous chemicals and therapeutic agents as well as endogenous compounds. For some of these xenobiotics, oxidative metabolism results in the formation of toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic metabolites. In the past, the role of CYP enzymes in metabolism and chemical-induced toxicity was studied indirectly through use of specific antibodies or inducers and inhibitors of these enzymes. Progress in molecular biology and the ability to bioengineer animal models that do not express CYP1A2, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, or both CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 isozymes has allowed for direct investigations of the in vivo role of these enzymes in the metabolism, toxicity, and carcinogenicity of xenobiotics. This article reviews research conducted to date that utilizes these genetically bioengineered mice in metabolism, toxicity, or carcinogenicity studies of chemicals. Some studies showed a positive correlation between in vivo results and in vitro predictions for the role of a specific CYP in chemical-induced effects, whereas other studies did not support in vitro predictions. Work reviewed herein demonstrates the importance of using animal models for investigating the role of specific CYP enzymes in metabolism and chemical-induced toxicity or carcinogenicity rather than relying solely on in vitro techniques. Eventually, studies of this nature will facilitate a more accurate assessment of human risks with regard to chemicals by helping us to understand the relationships between chemical metabolism, carcinogenicity, and polymorphisms in CYP enzymes.  (+info)

Increased susceptibility of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 knockout mice to nitrosamine carcinogenicity. (80/865)

The involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1), one of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family proteins, in genomic stability, DNA repair and cell death triggered by DNA damage has been well documented. However, the potential role of Parp-1 in carcinogenesis has not been well evaluated. In this study the carcinogenic activity of N:-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) was studied in Parp-1(-/-) mice, generated by disrupting P:arp-1 gene exon 1. Parp-1(-/-) and Parp-1(+/+) male mice received 0, 250 and 500 p.p.m. BHP in their drinking water for 20 weeks and were then killed. The percentage of animals bearing hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas in the liver and numbers of tumors per mouse were markedly higher in the Parp-1(-/-) groups given 250 or 500 p.p.m. BHP than in their Parp-1(+/+) counterparts. Hemangiosarcomas developed only in Parp-1(-/-) mice. In the lung the numbers of adenomas per mouse were increased in Parp-1(-/-) mice given BHP at 250 and 500 p.p.m. (P < 0.01) compared with the Parp-1(+/+) case. The results show that susceptibility to BHP is significantly elevated in Parp-1(-/-) mice, thus providing direct evidence that Parp-1 is relevant to carcinogenesis.  (+info)