Differential expression of cytokeratin after orthotopic implantation of newly established human tongue cancer cell lines of defined metastatic ability.
(57/865)Two human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, SQUU-A and SQUU-B, were established from the same patient. Cervical lymph node metastasis was detected in the mice orthotopically implanted with SQUU-B (86.7%, 13/15), but not in those with SQUU-A (0/13). Histologically, SQUU-B showed invasive growth and intravasation in the tongue, whereas SQUU-A simply demonstrated expansive growth without intravasation. By Western blot analysis, nonmetastatic clone SQUU-A expressed cytokeratin (CK)13/4, 14, 16/6, 18/8, and 19, whereas a high metastatic clone SQUU-B expressed CK18/8 and 19. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed that CK13/4 mRNA was expressed in both cell lines, but CK14 and 16 mRNA was expressed only in SQUU-A. CK13 was immunohistochemically expressed in both SQUU-A and SQUU-B transplanted into the tongues of nude mice; CK14 and 16 were detected in SQUU-A of the tongues, but not in SQUU-B. As seen in SQUU-B cell line, SQUU-B of the cervical lymph node metastasis did not exhibit CK13, 14, or 16. These results suggest that the loss or down-regulation of CK13, 14, or 16 is related to the invasive and metastatic ability of cancer. The cytoskeletal system is thus considered to be closely related to the malignant phenotype. (+info)
Subchronic and chronic toxicological investigations on metiram: the lack of a carcinogenic response in rodents.
(58/865)Metiram complex is a non-systemically acting fungicide of the group of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). The subchronic and chronic toxicity and the carcinogenic potential of metiram (containing 2% ethylene thiourea, ETU, as an intentionally added impurity) were investigated. Doses in the chronic/carcinogenicity rat study were 0, 5, 20, 80, or 320 ppm. In the carcinogenicity study in mice, diets were administered for 89 weeks (females) or 95 weeks (males) at doses of 0, 100, 300, or 1000 ppm. No oncogenic response was noted in either species. The subchronic studies in rats and mice further investigated the thyroid as a target organ. Doses of 0, 5, 80, 320, or 960 ppm were utilized in the rat study and a NOAEL of 80 ppm was established. In the subchronic mouse study, diets containing 0, 300, 1000, 3000, or 7500 ppm were utilized. A NOAEL of 300 ppm was established in this study. In summary, the findings of these studies defined the toxicity of metiram in rodents and demonstrated the lack of a carcinogenic response following chronic dietary exposure in the rat and mouse. The NOAELs that were established in these studies were consistent with the NOAELs established for thyroid toxicity/carcinogenicity in studies on ethylenethiourea (ETU). (+info)
Fas-dependent tissue turnover is implicated in tumor cell clearance.
(59/865)The apoptosis-inducing Fas receptor has been shown to be down-regulated in various types of tumors, while its ligand (FasL) appears to be frequently up-regulated. Here we provide evidence that there is a strong selective pressure in vivo against Fas-expressing, tumorigenic NIH3T3 cells, favoring survival, proliferation and eventually tumor formation by Fas-negative cells. Importantly, re-expression of Fas in these cells results in either the complete abolishment of tumor development, or in a significant extenuation of the latency period of tumor outgrowth. In addition, we found that environmental conditions which prevail during tumorigenesis, such as limiting amounts of survival factors and the lack of cell adhesion, are markedly sensitizing tumor cells to Fas-mediated suicide. Our data suggest that in addition to T cell-mediated immune responses, mechanisms of Fas-dependent tissue turnover are also centrally implicated in tumor cell clearance. (+info)
Two distinct activities contribute to the oncogenic potential of the adenovirus type 5 E4orf6 protein.
(60/865)Previous studies have shown that the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 gene product displays features of a viral oncoprotein. It initiates focal transformation of primary rat cells in cooperation with Ad5 E1 genes and confers multiple additional transformed properties on E1-expressing cells, including profound morphological alterations and dramatically accelerated tumor growth in nude mice. It has been reported that E4orf6 binds to p53 and, in the presence of the Ad5 E1B-55kDa protein, antagonizes p53 stability by targeting the tumor suppressor protein for active degradation. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive mutant analysis to assign transforming functions of E4orf6 to distinct regions within the viral polypeptide and to analyze a possible correlation between E4orf6-dependent p53 degradation and oncogenesis. Our results show that p53 destabilization maps to multiple regions within both amino- and carboxy-terminal parts of the viral protein and widely cosegregates with E4orf6-dependent acceleration of tumor growth, indicating that both effects are related. In contrast, promotion of focus formation and morphological transformation require only a carboxy-terminal segment of the E4 protein. Thus, these effects are completely independent of p53 stability, but may involve other interactions with the tumor suppressor. Our results demonstrate that at least two distinct activities contribute to the oncogenic potential of Ad5 E4orf6. Although genetically separable, both activities are largely mediated through a novel highly conserved, cysteine-rich motif and a recently described arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix, which resides within a carboxy-terminal "oncodomain" of the viral protein. (+info)
Origin and distribution of potassium bromate-induced testicular and peritoneal mesotheliomas in rats.
(61/865)Tissue sections were examined from a 2-year bioassay of male Fischer 344 rats treated with potassium bromate administered in drinking water. All animals exhibiting peritoneal mesotheliomas also had mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis mesorchium (the reverse was not true), and the correlation of these 2 types of mesotheliomas was highly significant (r2 = 0.98). Mapping of the tunica vaginalis tumors at all time points and at all bromate concentrations revealed a pattern of increasing incidence of tumor formation on the mesothelium of the tunica vaginalis testis as a function of proximity to the mesorchial ligament. Thus, the mesorchium appears to be the major mesothelial target site for potassium bromate-mediated carcinogenesis. The frequency of occurrence of mesotheliomas by location was tunica vaginalis testis (25%), mesosplenium (20%), mesentery (10%), mesojejunum/mesocolon (8%), bladder (6.5%), mesogastrium (13%), liver serosa (5%), and kidney, small intestine, and rectum (1% each). A complete cross-section of the rat testis was prepared and used to construct a complete map of the mesothelium. Any attempt to determine the role of local dose and tissue susceptibility for the purpose of interspecies risk extrapolation must take into account the complex anatomy and physiology of this region of the visceral and testicular suspensory apparatus. Improved histologic approaches are needed for adequate assessment of this delicate suspensory system. (+info)
A dominant negative RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor reverses neoplastic phenotype in K-ras transformed mouse fibroblasts.
(62/865)Ras proteins are small GTPases playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Their activation state depends on the competing action of GTPase Activating Proteins (GAP) and Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEF). A tryptophan residue (Trp1056 in CDC25Mm-GEF), conserved in all ras-specific GEFs identified so far has been previously shown to be essential for GEF activity. Its substitution with glutamic acid results in a catalytically inactive mutant, which is able to efficiently displace wild-type GEF from p21ras and to originate a stable ras/GEF binary complex due to the reduced affinity of the nucleotide-free ras/GEF complex for the incoming nucleotide. We show here that this 'ras-sequestering property' can be utilized to attenuate ras signal transduction pathways in mouse fibroblasts transformed by oncogenic ras. In fact overexpression of the dominant negative GEFW1056E in stable transfected cells strongly reduces intracellular ras-GTP levels in k-ras transformed fibroblasts. Accordingly, the transfected fibroblasts revert to wild-type phenotype on the basis of morphology, cell cycle and anchorage independent growth. The reversion of the transformed phenotype is accompanied by DNA endoreduplication. The possible use of dominant negative ras-specific GEFs as a tool to down-regulate tumor growth is discussed. (+info)
Statistical analysis of skin tumor data from Tg.AC mouse bioassays.
(63/865)New strategies for identifying chemical carcinogens and assessing risk have been proposed based on the Tg.AC (zetaglobin promoted v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse. Preliminary studies suggest that the Tg. AC mouse bioassay may be an effective means of quickly evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a test agent. The skin of the Tg.AC mouse is genetically initiated, and the induction of epidermal papillomas in response to dermal or oral exposure to a chemical agent acts as a reporter phenotype of the activity of the test chemical. In Tg.AC mouse bioassays, the test agent is typically applied topically for up to 26 weeks, and the number of papillomas in the treated area is counted weekly. Statistical analyses are complicated by within-animal and serial dependency in the papilloma counts, survival differences between animals, and missing data. In this paper, we describe a statistical model for the analysis of skin tumor data from a Tg.AC mouse bioassay. The model separates effects on papilloma latency and multiplicity and accommodates important features of the data, including variability in expression of the transgene and dependency in the tumor counts. Methods are described for carcinogenicity testing and risk assessment. We illustrate our approach using data from a study of the effect of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on tumorigenesis. (+info)
Choline supplementation inhibits diethanolamine-induced morphological transformation in syrian hamster embryo cells: evidence for a carcinogenic mechanism.
(64/865)DEA, an amino alcohol, and its fatty acid condensates are widely used in commerce. DEA is hepatocarcinogenic in mice, but shows no evidence of mutagenicity or clastogenicity in a standard testing battery. However, it increased the number of morphologically transformed colonies in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell morphologic transformation assay. The goal of this work was to test the hypothesis that DEA treatment causes morphologic transformation by a mechanism involving altered cellular choline homeostasis. As a first step, the ability of DEA to disrupt the uptake and intracellular utilization of choline was characterized. SHE cells were cultured in medium containing DEA (500 microg/ml), and (33)P-phosphorus or (14)C-choline was used to label phospholipid pools. After 48 h, SHE cells were harvested, lipids were extracted, and radioactive phospholipids were quantified by autoradiography after thin layer chromatographic separation. In control cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major phospholipid, accounting for 43 +/- 1% of total phospholipid synthesis. However, with DEA treatment, PC was reduced to 14 +/- 2% of total radioactive phospholipids. DEA inhibited choline uptake into SHE cells at concentrations > or = 50 microg /ml, reaching a maximum 80% inhibition at 250-500 microg/ml. The concentration dependence of the inhibition of PC synthesis by DEA (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg/ml) was determined in SHE cells cultured over a 7-day period under the conditions of the transformation assay and in the presence or absence of excess choline (30 mM). DEA treatment decreased PC synthesis at concentrations > or = 100 microg/ml, reaching a maximum 60% reduction at 500 microg/ml. However, PC synthesis was unaffected when DEA-treated cells were cultured with excess choline. Under 7-day culture conditions, (14)C-DEA was incorporated into SHE lipids, and this perturbation was also inhibited by choline supplementation. Finally, DEA (10-500 microg/ml) transformed SHE cells in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas with choline supplementation, no morphologic transformation was observed. Thus, DEA disrupts intracellular choline homeostasis by inhibiting choline uptake and altering phospholipid synthesis. However, excess choline blocks these biochemical effects and inhibits cell transformation, suggesting a relationship between the two responses. Overall, the results provide a plausible mechanism to explain the morphologic transformation observed with DEA and suggest that the carcinogenic effects of DEA may be caused by intracellular choline deficiency. (+info)