Biologic effects of heregulin/neu differentiation factor on normal and malignant human breast and ovarian epithelial cells.
(41/865)The heregulins are a family of ligands with ability to induce phosphorylation of the p185HER-2/neu receptor. Various investigators have reported a variety of responses of mouse and human breast and ovarian cells to this family of ligands including growth stimulation, growth inhibition, apoptosis and induction of differentiation in cells expressing the HER-2/neu receptor. Some of the disparity in the literature has been attributed to variations in the cell lines studied, ligand dose applied, methodologies utilized or model system evaluated (i.e. in vitro or in vivo). To evaluate the effects of heregulin on normal and malignant human breast and ovarian epithelial cells expressing known levels of the HER-2/neu receptor, this report presents the use of several different assays, performed both in vitro and in vivo, in vitro proliferation assays, direct cell counts, clonogenicity under anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions, as well as the in vivo effects of heregulin on human cells growing in nude mice to address heregulin activity. Using a total of five different biologic assays in nine different cell lines, across two different epithelia and over a one log heregulin dose range, we obtained results that clearly indicate a growth-stimulatory role for this ligand in human breast and ovarian epithelial cells. We find no evidence that heregulin has any growth-inhibitory effects in human epithelial cells. We also quantitated the amount of each member of the type I receptor tyrosine kinase family (RTK I, i.e. HER-1, HER-2, HER-3 and HER-4) in the cell lines employed and correlated this to their respective heregulin responses. These data demonstrate that HER-2/neu overexpression itself affects the expression of other RTK I members and that cells expressing the highest levels of HER-2/neu have the greatest response to HRG. (+info)
Induction of tumor suppression and glandular differentiation of A549 lung carcinoma cells by dominant-negative IGF-I receptor.
(42/865)Overexpression or activation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) has been observed in many human cancers including breast, lung, colon and gastric carcinomas. We demonstrate that inhibition of the endogenous insulin-like growth factor I receptor by stable expression of a dominant-negative IGF-IR represses the transforming activity in vitro and tumorigenicity of human lung carcinoma cells A549 in vivo. The suppression of tumorigenicity in nude mice is correlated with the induction of glandular differentiation. In addition, functional inhibition of the endogenous receptor dramatically increases the sensitivity of A549 cells to a variety of apoptotic signals including UV irradiation and proteasome inhibitors. These effects are due to the formation of a stable heterocomplex of the dominant-negative receptor with the endogenous wild type receptor which reduces the kinase activity of the latter by twofold. Thus, inhibition of the IGF-IR signaling pathway not only suppresses tumorigenicity but also enhances sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing agents. Antagonizing IGF-IR signaling by promoting tumor differentiation and enhancing sensitivity to apoptotic death are potential cancer therapeutic approaches. (+info)
Comparison of uroplakin expression during urothelial carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in rats and mice.
(43/865)The expression of uroplakins, the tissue-specific and differentiation-dependent membrane proteins of the urothelium, was analyzed immunohistochemically in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-treated rats and mice during bladder carcinogenesis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated with 0.05% BBN in the drinking water for 10 wk and were euthanatized at week 20 of the experiment. BBN was administered to male B6D2F, mice; it was either provided at a rate of 0.05% in the drinking water (for 26 wk) or 5 mg BBN was administered by intragastric gavage twice weekly for 10 wk, followed by 20 wk without treatment. In rats, BBN-induced, noninvasive, low-grade, papillary, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) showed decreased uroplakin-staining of cells lining the lumen but showed increased expression in some nonluminal cells. In mice, nonpapillary, high-grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma were induced. There was a marked decrease in the number of uroplakin-positive cells lining the lumen and in nonluminal cells. This occurred in normal-appearing urothelium in BBN-treated mice and in dysplasic urothelium, in carcinoma in situ, and in invasive TCC. The percentage of uroplakin-positive nonluminal cells was higher in control mice than in rats, but it was lower in the mouse than in the rat after BBN treatment. Uroplakin expression was disorderly and focal in BBN-treated urothelium in both species. These results indicate that BBN treatment changed the expression of uroplakins during bladder carcinogenesis, with differences in rats and mice being related to degree of tumor differentiation. (+info)
Histopathology of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) chronically exposed to a complex environmental mixture.
(44/865)Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the carcinogenicity of a complex groundwater that contained 5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant heavy metals and 13 chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. A test protocol that used 10 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN) prior to groundwater exposure was designed to assess both initiation and promotion. The fish were exposed continuously for 9 mo with 0, 1, 5, or 25% groundwater, by volume, with either West Branch of Canal Creek water (Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD) or dechlorinated tap water as the diluent, while concurrent controls were run in the laboratory. Incidental findings included various neoplasms in the nares, ovary, skeletal muscle, skin, swim bladder, testis, thymus, and thyroid. Factors evaluated during statistical analyses of fish neoplasm prevalence included diluent type, groundwater percentage, fish gender, and DEN initiation. Liver neoplasm prevalence was higher in DEN-initiated fish and was frequently higher in males. Concentrations of up to 25% groundwater, by volume, showed no evidence of being a complete carcinogen and showed no consistent, conclusive evidence of being a promoter. (+info)
Diet, caloric restriction, and the rodent bioassay.
(45/865)The diet can significantly alter the results of toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. Ad libitum (AL) overfeeding of excessive calories to sedentary adult rodents is one of the most poorly controlled variables affecting the current rodent bioassay. AL-overfed rodents develop an early onset of adverse metabolic events, endocrine-disruptive degenerative diseases, and tumors that result in early morbidity and mortality. AL food consumption is extremely variable, but has a strong correlation with adult body weight, obesity, and survival. AL feeding of diets with modified protein, fiber, and energy content are not as effective as simple, moderate dietary (caloric) restriction (DR) in controlling these study variables. Moderate DR (70-75% of adult AL) is operationally simple and controls adult body weights, prevents obesity, and improves health and survival by reducing or delaying diet-related endocrine, renal, and cardiac diseases. Moderate DR provides a uniform rodent model, increases treatment exposure time, and increases the statistical sensitivity of these chronic bioassays to detect true treatment effects. Feeding a balanced diet by a moderate DR regimen of 70-75% of the maximum, unrestricted adult AL food intake is recommended for conducting well-controlled toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. (+info)
Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity study of cyclamate in nonhuman primates.
(46/865)Twenty-one monkeys (cynomolgus, rhesus, African green) were fed cyclamate (100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) in the diet five times per week from a few days after birth and continuing for up to 24 years. Malignant tumors were diagnosed in three 24-year-old cyclamate monkeys; these were metastatic colon carcinoma (rhesus; 500 mg/kg), metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (cynomolgus; 500 mg/kg), and a small, well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate (cynomolgus; 100 mg/kg). Benign tumors were found at necropsy in three females; these were adenoma of the thyroid gland (rhesus; 100 mg/kg) and two cases of leiomyoma of the uterus (rhesus; 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg). No tumors were detected in an age-matched control group of 16 monkeys. Examination of the testes revealed complete testicular atrophy in one of the old cyclamate monkeys, and focal germ cell aplasia (Sertoli-only tubules) in two other cyclamate monkeys. Focal spermatogenic interruption (maturation arrest) at various germ cell levels mixed with normal spermatogenesis was observed in both the cyclamate-treated and the control monkeys, all of which were over 20 years old. Measurements of terminal cyclohexylamine concentrations showed that three of the males dosed with cyclamate at 500 mg/kg were high converters, with plasma concentrations comparable to the levels that produce testicular atrophy in rats. However, only one of the three high converters showed histologic evidence of irregular spermatogenesis. The overall conclusion is that the testicular abnormalities and the sporadic cases of different malignancies found after more than 20 years of dosing do not provide clear evidence of a toxic or carcinogenic effect of sodium cyclamate in monkeys. (+info)
Lack of carcinogenicity of chlorpyrifos insecticide in a high-dose, 2-year dietary toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats.
(47/865)Chlorpyrifos (CPF) was administered daily in the feed to evaluate toxicity and oncogenicity potential in male and female Fischer 344 rats, according to U.S. EPA guidelines. Doses for the 2-year study were based on findings in a 13-week feeding study in which lower body weights, urinary perineal staining, adrenal cortical vacuolization, and inhibition (slightly more than 60%) of brain cholinesterase (ChE) occurred at 15 mg/kg/day. The high dose in the subsequent 2-year study was 10 mg/kg/day, with lower doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg/day chosen to define dose-response patterns. Rats given 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years were healthy and there was no evidence of premature deaths. Mild toxicity occurred only in rats given 10 mg/kg/day and consisted of perineal urine soiling in females and a 6-8% body-weight decrease in males. Males given 10 mg/kg/day also had increased adrenal weights and vacuolation of the adrenal zona fasciculata. ChE was considered a measure of exposure. Plasma, RBC, and brain ChE activities were inhibited in rats given 10 mg/kg/day, and the plasma and RBC ChE activities were inhibited in rats given 1.0 mg/kg/day. Chronic exposure to 0.1 mg/kg/day was considered a threshold exposure level for inhibition of plasma ChE. Rats given 10 mg/kg/day, considered a maximum-tolerated dose, had approximately 60% chronic inhibition of brain ChE. This group had similar numbers and types of neoplasms as control rats. Consequently, CPF was not carcinogenic at dose levels up to 10 mg/kg/day. (+info)
Preclinical evaluation of prototype products.
(48/865)Preclinical evaluation of medical devices (prototype products) offers the opportunity to investigate and study the intended use of device materials. Preclinical evaluation programs are designed to determine the efficacy, safety, and biocompatibility of biomaterials, prostheses, and medical devices. The purpose of safety testing is to determine if a material presents potential harm to the human; it evaluates the interaction of the material with the in vivo environment and determines the effect of the host on the implant. Preclinical evaluation is the determination of the ability of the prototype product to perform with appropriate host response in a specific application, considered from the perspective of human clinical use. Therefore, preclinical data should include materials science and engineering, biology, biochemistry, medicine, host reactions and their evaluation, the testing of biomaterials, and the degradation of materials in a biological environment. (+info)